Employment Programs for Disabled Youth: An International View

By Brodsky, Melvin | Monthly Labor Review, December 1990 | Go to article overview

Employment Programs for Disabled Youth: An International View


Brodsky, Melvin, Monthly Labor Review


The transition of young disabled people from school to work is an issue of increasing concern to U.S. government policymakers. Currently, only one-third of all disabled Americans with disabilities work, although the remaining two-thirds who are not working would like to have a job, but may or may not be looking for one. However, data show that more than 15 percent of individuals with disabilities are unemployed compared with approximately 5 percent for the general population.(1) For young disabled people, the employment situation has been even worse. The Disability Advisory Council, a commission created by Congress to study the effectiveness of the current Federal employment/disability policy and programs, noted in its 1988 Report to Congress that few high school graduates with developmental disabilities make a successful transition from school to sustained, gainful employment. It is estimated that in 1986, more than 90 percent of these special education graduates became dependent in some way after high school.(2)

However, a number of emerging trends in the United States will likely improve the employment prospects for young people with disabilities in the years to come. First, the growth of the labor force is slowing as a result of declining birth rates. This will force employers to look beyond their traditional sources to other groups, such as people with disabilities, to fill entry level positions. Second, with the restructuring of the American economy and the relative decline in numbers of jobs requiring manuals skills, physical limitations will become less hindering for young disabled persons. Third, the recent enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act will remove many obstacles which have thwarted the job-search efforts of young disabled people.

While these trends are encouraging, criticisms remain as to the effectiveness of U.S. employment policies for people with disabilities. In its February 1986 report to the President, the National Council of the Handicapped attributed the ineffectiveness of the current transition process to the "absence of a systematic vocational transition process for youths with disabilities."(3)

What are other countries doing to ease the transitions process? This report, which is based upon the findings of two cooperative U.S.--Organization for Economic Cooperation Development (OECD) activities, describes employment policies and programs, incentive plans, and job creation programs to aid disabled young jobseekers in Japan, Sweden Italy, Denmark, and the United States.(4)

International overview

Although the emphasis of individual employment strategies for disabled persons differs among countries--quotas in Japan, subsidized employment in Sweden, elimination of barriers in the United States--there are areas of agreement. First, there is a growing realization that disabled people must become an integral part of society if they are to achieve independence. Danish disability policy is centered around three principles--normalization, integration, and decentralization. In Sweden, the aim of disability policy is to avoid special solutions for the disabled to the extent possible and make society as a whole accessible to all. In Italy, where local authorities are responsible for funding and programs, the successful Genoa Approach is being replicated in Venice and Rome and other Italian cities. This model seeks to place and sustain young persons with moderate and severe mental disabilities in regular, rather than sheltered, employment. Japanese measures for the disabled are based on the ideal of "normalization." In the United States, Federal policy has similarly stressed the importance of integrating people with disabilities into society.

The importance of gainful, unsubsidized employment is another area of agreement. While Sweden's policy of "Employment for All" has resulted in the creation of 80,000 subsidized jobs for the disabled, the overall goal is to place these people in unsubsidized employment. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Employment Programs for Disabled Youth: An International View
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    New feature

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have dyslexia, and in an effort to make Questia easier to use for those people, we have added a new choice of font to the Reader. That font is called OpenDyslexic, and has been designed to help with some of the symptoms of dyslexia. For more information on this font, please visit OpenDyslexic.org.

    To use OpenDyslexic, choose it from the Typeface list in Font settings.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.