Hope-Focused and Forgiveness-Based Group Interventions to Promote Marital Enrichment. (Research)

By Ripley, Jennifer S.; Worthington, Everett L., Jr. | Journal of Counseling and Development : JCD, Fall 2002 | Go to article overview

Hope-Focused and Forgiveness-Based Group Interventions to Promote Marital Enrichment. (Research)


Ripley, Jennifer S., Worthington, Everett L., Jr., Journal of Counseling and Development : JCD


One of the challenges for mental health professionals today is finding meaningful ways to intervene in situations in which prevention may be all that is necessary, extensive counseling may not be feasible, or potential clients are resistant to engaging in therapy. Historically, one of the ways counselors have met these needs has been through developing and implementing structured or psychoeducational groups (Gelso & Fretz, 1992). Psychoeducational groups have historically been a component of graduate training for mental health professionals (Wilson, Coyne, & Ward, 1994). Across time, the topics that have been addressed in psychoeducational groups have been wide-ranging, including promoting marriages (Kaiser, Hahlweg, Fehm-Wolfsdorf, & Groth, 1998; Long, Angera, Carter, Nakamoto, & Kalso, 1999; Zimpfer, 1990), supporting families (Hunter, Hoffnung, & Ferholt, 1988), training parents (Cwiakala & Mordock, 1996; Kiselica, Rotzien, & Doms, 1994), supporting adolescents (Kiselica et al., 1994; Rice & Meyer, 1994; Yoshikawa, 1994), caretaking for elderly family members (Schwiebert & Myers, 1994), coping with psychological disorders (Fristad, Gavazzi, Centolella, & Soldano, 1996; Twoey, 1997), promoting forgiveness (McCullough & Worthington, 1994, 1995; Worthington, Sandage, & Berry, 2000), and coping with substance abuse problems (Stanton & Shadish, 1997).

Couples enrichment psychoeducational groups attempt to promote more satisfying couple relationships and to prevent future marital difficulties from developing. The need for psychoeducation for married couples is extensive. The problems related to high divorce rates in the United States are widely known. Although there have been improvements in other indicators of social health, such as teen pregnancy and crime (Department of Health and Human Services, 1998; Taylor, 1999), divorce remains high (National Center for Health Statistics, 1999). Public leaders have recognized the repercussions of a high divorce rate on child and adult well-being and have taken steps to attempt to reduce the divorce rate. For example, Oklahoma has begun a marital initiative to reduce the rate of divorce in the state (Regier, 1999). In an effort to prevent divorce, some states have codified "covenantal marriages," which will not allow for no-fault divorce. Other states have erected other barriers to divorce (Anderson, 1998; Johnston, 1999).

Research on the effectiveness of marital enrichment for improving the quality of marriages has produced a substantial body of literature. Recent meta-analyses of marital enrichment interventions have revealed meaningful mean treatment effects for marital enrichment interventions (mean effect size of .32; see Hight & Worthington, 1999; see also Giblin, Sprenkle, & Sheehan, 1985). Many--but not all--marital enrichment programs have proven to be effective in changing marital functioning. Negative effects have been found for some couples in some popular programs. For example, research on the Marriage Encounter program found that some couples rated their relationship more negatively after an intervention than before (Doherty, Lester, & Leigh, 1986; Doherty & Walker, 1982)--usually those whose marriage was troubled at the outset of the weekend.

The current study compares two types of marital enrichment interventions that are offered in psychoeducational groups: hope-focused marital enrichment and forgiveness-based marital enrichment. The term marriage enrichment is used throughout this article is descriptive of interventions focused only on marriages, while couples or relationship enrichment is the term to apply to all types of romantic relationships.) The hope-focused program is similar to most popular couples enrichment programs. It focuses on communication skills and conflict resolution. In the forgiveness-based marital enrichment program, the focus is on forgiveness as an essential skill for couples to learn in their marriage (McCullough, Rachal, Sandage, Worthington, & Hight, 1998). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Hope-Focused and Forgiveness-Based Group Interventions to Promote Marital Enrichment. (Research)
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.