Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1994-2001. (Legislation & Policy)
Grimmett, Richard F., DISAM Journal
[The following are extracts from the unclassified report of Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations as published under the above title by the Library of Congress on August 6, 2002. Macro data on worldwide arms transfer agreements and deliveries are also included. The selections included herein begin with a discussion of major research findings regarding the dollar value of both arms transfer agreements and arms deliveries to the developing countries from 1994 through 2001. These findings are all cross-referenced to comparative data tables which are presented following the textual material. Special attention is given to the roles of the United States, the former Soviet Union, and China as arms suppliers, and to identification of the leading Third World arms recipient nations. The report concludes with a listing of the type and quantity of weapons delivered to developing nations by major arms suppliers in the 1994-2001 time period. Copies of the complete document are available from the Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division, Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress, Washington DC 20540.]
This report provides unclassified background data from U.S. government sources on transfers of conventional arms to developing nations by major suppliers for the period of 1994 through 2001. It also includes some data on world-wide supplier transactions. It updates and revises the report entitled Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1993-2000, published by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) on Aug 16, 2001 (CRS Report RL3 1083).
The data in the report illustrate how global patterns of conventional arms transfers have changed in the post-Cold War and post-Persian Gulf War years. Relationships between arms suppliers and recipients continue to evolve in response to changing political, military, and economic circumstances. Despite global changes since the Cold War's end, the developing world continues to be the primary focus of foreign arms sales activity by conventional weapons suppliers. During the period of this report, 1994-2001, conventional arms transfer agreements (which represent orders for future delivery) to developing nations have comprised 68.3 percent of the value of all international arms transfer agreements. The portion of agreements with developing countries constitute 65.8 percent of all agreements globally from 1998-2001. In 2001, arms transfer agreements with developing countries accounted for 60.5 percent of the value of all such agreements globally. Deliveries of conventional arms to developing nations, from 1998-200 1, constituted 68.7 percent of all international arms deliveries. In 2001, arms deliveries to developing nations constituted 67.6 percent of the value of all such arms deliveries worldwide.
The data in this report completely supercede all data published in previous editions. Since these new data for 1994-2001 reflect potentially significant updates to and revisions in the underlying databases utilized for this report, only the data in this most recent edition should be used. The data are expressed in U.S. dollars for the calendar years indicated, and adjusted for inflation. U.S. commercially licensed arms exports are incorporated in the main delivery data tables, and noted separately. Excluded are arms transfers by any supplier to subnational groups.
Calendar Year Data Used
All arms transfer and arms delivery data in this report are for the calendar year or calendar year period given. This applies to both U.S. and foreign data alike. United States government departments and agencies published data on U.S. arms transfers and deliveries but generally use the United States fiscal year as the computational time period for these data. (A U.S. fiscal year covers the period from October 1 through September 30). As a consequence, there are likely to be distinct differences noted in those unpublished totals using a fiscal year basis and those provided in this report which use a calendar year basis for its figures. …