As Reformer Exits, Who Will Lead Iran? ; Iranians Go to the Polls Friday to Choose a Successor to President Mohammad Khatami
Scott Peterson writer of The Christian Science Monitor, The Christian Science Monitor
The supreme leader of Iran calls it a "religious duty" to vote in Friday's presidential election.
But that declaration, issued by Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei, is one of the few nods to Islam in an election that caps a period of extraordinary political change here. Though outgoing President Mohammad Khatami is widely chastised and even despised today by friend and foe alike, his eight-year tenure and its agenda of reconciling Islam with democracy now shapes every aspect of Iranian life.
Mr. Khatami's legacy is often overshadowed by the titanic struggle in Iran between those who demand change and those who won't accept it - loosely, Iran's reformists and its hard-line conservatives.
But today, the words "democracy," "freedom," and "reform" - ridiculed by the establishment when Khatami first stepped onto the political scene - are now on every Iranian tongue.
"For conservatives, the political system was a divine thing, but Khatami brought this divine thing down to earth," says Hamid Reza Jalaiepour, a top reform strategist. "All candidates are emphasizing the secular, not the religious."
The race is so close that pollsters predict a second-round runoff between front-runner and former two-time president Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani - a pragmatic conservative - and reform leader Mustafa Moin, who is aiming to capitalize on Khatami's past popularity.
"I am here to continue the path of Khatami and reform, to take another step forward for this movement," Mr. Moin boomed to supporters at a rally this week. "The only way to rescue Iran is through democracy, democracy, democracy!"
The fingerprints of Khatami's legacy are everywhere, from the rhetoric of the candidates to the demand for accountability from an often impenetrable Islamic regime.
"Khatami can take pride [in this election], because everyone is speaking his language," says a European diplomat, who asked not to be named. "After eight years, he can claim to have changed political discourse - about human rights, democracy, and reform. Society has been transformed.
"He gave people a sense that their voice is being heard and it matters, that he was bridging the gap between the rulers and the ruled," says the diplomat. "People felt they could achieve things."
Khatami scored some victories: He cleaned out the intelligence ministry after operatives were linked to a string of serial murders against dissidents in 1999.
There have also been striking defeats: Scores of newspapers have been shut down; reformers have been imprisoned and sometimes physically attacked by shadowy ideological thugs; and hard-line factions still control virtually every lever of power here.
Legislation to curb the absolute power of unelected bodies has been smothered by those very bodies. …