For Indians, the Tax Man Rarely Cometh ; India's Government Wants to End a Culture of Tax Evasion That Is Limiting Funds for Public Services
Sunil Jagtiani Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor, The Christian Science Monitor
As a booming India strives to achieve ambitious development goals set out in its national budget last month, it faces a major obstacle: rampant income tax evasion. Only about 30 million Indians pay taxes even though the country's middle class, estimated at 300 million, outnumbers the entire US population.
Analysts contend higher tax revenues would help India to provide better public services, curb its large budget deficit, and boost economic growth. But experts say widespread skepticism about the efficiency of the state - the result of extensive corruption, past economic mismanagement, and poor public-service provision - has helped to sustain a culture of evasion.
"Tax evasion has become a national sport," says Jayaprakash Narayan, the national coordinator of Lok Satta, a group campaigning for better governance in India. "The majority of Indians work in the unorganized sector, where cash payments are common and concealment of income is easy."
Boosting the share of national income based on income tax has become a priority for the government, which has adopted measures to increase the taxpayer base and cut evasion - including more taxes on services, a new value-added tax on goods, and an initiative to create a digital-information network about taxpayers that could pinpoint evaders.
The network, which was inaugurated in 2004 but is still under development, would enable tax inspectors to track such things as high-value purchases and large bank deposits, compare them with declared incomes on individual tax returns, and investigate any anomalies. The government hopes better administration will encourage taxpayer compliance.
For now, though, tax dodging remains pervasive. Nonetheless, rapid economic growth has boosted India's tax revenues, partly because existing corporate and personal income taxpayers have enjoyed rising incomes. The budget has forecast nearly 20 percent growth in tax revenues for the coming financial year.
"I think the current government's approach is that it's hard to change basic attitudes, so keep economic growth high, which will push up incomes and tax revenues anyway," says Sunil Khilnani, a politics professor at John Hopkins University in Baltimore, Md.
In the long-term, some experts are hopeful that the evolving culture of India's rising generation promises a less adversarial approach - and hence the potential for greater compliance.
"Young professionals want to get jobs in the organized sector, where salaries are paid by check," says Mr. Ranina. Tax is typically deducted automatically from this kind of pay, as in many other countries. The young "are quite prepared to spend on plastic cards too," he adds, which reduces the scope for evading income and other taxes via the cash-based black economy. …