Revolution Unleashes a Culture Czechoslovakia Is Coming Full Circle from the Repression of the Prague Spring in 1968. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
Ruth Gruber,, The Christian Science Monitor
ONE of the big hits in Prague this spring is a movie that was in production before last fall's "velvet revolution" swept the Communists from power - but probably would have been consigned to the vaults had the revolution not taken place.
The film, "Extraordinary Beings" by director Fero Fenio, symbolically depicts 40 years of totalitarian rule in Czechoslovakia, including the Soviet-led invasion of 1968 - the Prague Spring - which crushed the last major wave of Czech creativity.
The film's premiere March 22 was a gala event emblematic of the exuberant liberation of Czechoslovak culture unleashed by the revolution, many of whose main protagonists, from playwright-President Vaclav Havel on down, were writers, actors, and musicians.
Parliament chairman Alexander Dubcek, the liberal Communist chief ousted by the 1968 invasion, was the guest of honor at the gala; outside, various former underground groups staged performances and an exuberant street theater "happening" included the demolition of a Communist monument.
The repression and controls imposed by the Communists after 1968 in Czechoslovakia created what West German writer Heinrich Boll once called a "cemetery of culture," and another European writer termed a "Biafra of the spirit."
It drove many cultural figures into exile, many others into the underground - or jail. Today, Czechoslovaks are reveling in their new freedom of expression.
Dozens of new publishing companies have started up since November. Once-banned books by authors such as Ivan Klims and Milan Kundera are now on sale.
Once-banned films, such as Karel Kachyna's "The Ear," Jiri Menzel's "Larks on a String" (recently shown at the Berlin Film Festival), Evald Schorm's "Seventh Day, Eighth Night," and "The Joke" by Jaromel Jires, are in the movie houses and on TV.
Plays by once-banned authors - including Mr. Havel himself - are now in production.
"There was a hunger for this type of culture," says Jiri Rulf, cultural editor of Lidovy Novine, once Prague's leading underground newspaper and now one of the major independent dailies.
Everything seems wide open, but the exhilaration is increasingly tempered by concern for the future as the slashing of subsidies once provided by the state raises fears that new, free markets may cut into the quality of new productions and publications.
"There's no money," says Mr. Rulf. "It's the problem of the entire society, and especially culture. Culture today must be economically independent.
"Many publishing houses have started up, but only one in 10 will be able to last more than a year. There's the same problem with films," he says.
The Communists tightly censored the style and content of books, movies, plays, and even music. There was little concept of aiming entertainment at a mass market; except for underground works, people had to make do with what they were provided.
Only in the last year or two were Czech filmmakers allowed to touch on controversial subjects such as AIDS and black marketeers, producing a few films with great popular success.
Ironically, some cultural figures now seem to fear that the end of political censorship might lead to a form of financial censorship in which mass market appeal will determine what gets produced. …