National Labs Nurture Initiative Nuclear Research in Illinois, Science Education Reflect Diverse Activity of US Facilities Network
Scott Pendleton, writer of The Christian Science Monitor, The Christian Science Monitor
SINCE World War II, vast technical advances have sprung from the blackboards and workbenches of the national laboratories owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Military and civilian research programs at the score of labs around the country have developed the nation's nuclear arsenal and delved into the secrets of matter's fundamental building blocks.
"They are essential to many areas of endeavor in the United States," says Edward Frieman, chairman of a DOE task force currently studying the labs. "If they were wiped out by the stroke of a pen," he says, the United States couldn't get along without them.
No one's threatening to wipe out the labs, but their role is being reexamined by Frieman's group at the request of Energy Secretary James Watkins.
"You can't run this whole complex as if the world hasn't changed. It has changed," Dr. Frieman says. The cold war is over. And there's a new national emphasis on energy supply, the environment, education, and national competitiveness, he says.
"The question is, what do we have to do about it?" asks Frieman, who is the director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, Calif., and a former director of energy research at DOE. The task force will make recommendations next fall to Admiral Watkins on a strategic vision to guide the labs and preserve their value as a national technical resource.
The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) illustrates the value of the labs. Five years of tests remain, but at this point officials at the Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Ill., are confident of fulfilling nuclear energy's discredited early promise of clean, cheap, safe, inexhaustible power.
As if that weren't enough, the IFR could even burn all the long-lived waste accumulating at the current generation of reactors, simplifying the nation's storage dilemma. A very small amount of IFR waste can't be reprocessed into fuel, but its radioactivity lasts only 200 years, not millions.
"Here at the national laboratory, you have the various disciplines, the chemists, the physicists, the mechanical engineers, the electrical engineers, etc., that you can bring together, as we have done, to develop a whole new reactor technology," says Charles Till, who directs the IFR program at Argonne. "No where else can you do that."
As the flagship of DOE's advanced reactor program, the IFR is important, yet it represents only $100 million out of the $6 billion in research under way at the national labs.
Already the labs are increasing their involvement in education, a necessary precursor to research, and in transferring technology to industry, a natural follow-up activity. There are serious challenges in both areas.
"Our scientists are all maturing, and we need to start to replace them. We've noticed in fact that a lot of them are dying their hair white for some reason," jokes Sam Bowen, of Argonne's division of educational programs.
"A lot of kids are ... finding science to be something that's really painful and boring. And they don't want to do it," he adds. "That means we're going to be suffering from a lack of supply of scientists."
A national shortfall of 675,000 scientists and engineers by the year 2006 is foreseen. The cause is the declining proportion of white males, who traditionally have pursued science careers. …