Women in College Sports Twenty Years after a Law Mandating Equal Treatment in Education, Women Who Are Student Athletes Still Get Shortchanged; but Change Is Coming
Maureen E. Devlin and Robert W. McCabe. Maureen E. Devlin is associate director Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics. Robert W. McCabe is a member Society, Boston., The Christian Science Monitor
COLLEGE sports have become a major source of revenue and entertainment in the United States. Public interest in intercollegiate football and men's basketball has created a huge industry sponsored by many of the nation's institutions of higher learning.
Hidden in this explosion are the inadequate efforts of our nation's major colleges and universities to provide athletic opportunities to women.
In every possible area of comparison, women have been denied any semblance of equitable treatment. From team sponsorship to athletic scholarships, coaching salaries, facilities, academic support, marketing, promotions, and medical care, female athletes have been given short shrift. This discrimination is illegal.
Today marks the 20th anniversary of the passage of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Title IX prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any education program or activity receiving federal funds, i.e., nearly all institutions of higher learning. In a current reform movement, college athletics has begun to address its own gender gap.
Twenty years after its passage, there is still "massive, blatant, wholesale violation of Title IX," according to Arthur Bryant, executive director of Trial Lawyers for Public Justice. Recent events, though, presage changes.
In February, the Supreme Court ruled 9-0 that monetary damages can be awarded for violations of Title IX. The ruling puts teeth into the law, which heretofore has been only sporadically enforced. Title IX suits - or their threat - have focused national attention on institutions such as the Universities of Oklahoma, New Hampshire, and New Mexico, Brown University, and Bowdoin and William and Mary Colleges.
In March, the National Collegiate Athletic Association released results of its gender-equity survey, documenting the disparity between men's and women's athletic programs at its member institutions. While total enrollment of women and men is virtually equal, male athletes outnumber female athletes by more than two to one and receive twice as many athletic scholarships as women. Men's teams get more than three-quarters of overall operating funds and over 80 percent of recruiting dollars.
Many who read these numbers are pleased to note that women's scholarships nearly match their participation ratio. However, a federal judge ruled in 1987 that differences in participation rates cannot be used to justify differences in scholarship offerings. Clearly, the courts understand that if more women were offered athletic scholarships, there would be more women participants.
Another defense proffered for these disparities is the uniqueness of football in terms of squad size and revenue generation. In fact, 89 percent of NCAA football teams do not generate enough revenue to support themselves, much less women's teams or other men's teams. …