Turkey: Caught in the Vortex of History
David D. Newsom. David D. Newsom, former undersecretary of state, is Cumming Memorial Professor of International Affairs, University of Virginia., The Christian Science Monitor
EARLIER this summer, I was a participant in a Georgetown University study tour of Turkey. The focus was on history - on the Greco-Roman presence in Asia Minor, on the rise of Byzantium, and on the contributions of the nine centuries of the Ottoman empire. But as dramatic as the history has been, the inescapable impressions of the tour were of Turkey's central position in the current events in the region. The Asia Minor nation is once more caught up in the vortex of history.
Turn the corner in the spice bazaar in Istanbul and there, before the visitor, is a street crowded, not with Turks, but with peoples of Russia and other former Soviet republics. What are they doing? They have come to sell for some profit personal property: clothes, toys, family mementos - anything they could carry on the bus trip south.
Or read the Turkish press. The fascination is with the opportunities for Turkey in the new republics of Central Asia: Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan - all speaking languages closely akin to Turkish. The Turks have redirected their broadcasting efforts toward these new nations. Peoples of the region are encouraged to come to Turkey to learn the workings of a free, democratic society. Trade is being diverted from Arab countries to Central Asia. To reinforce these policies, Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel visited the nations of Central Asia in May.
But Turkey directs its attention not only to the east. Drive out of Izmir toward Seljuk and the Turkish driver points out the tourist hotels now occupied by refugees from war-torn Yugoslavia. Turks are keenly aware, also, of their proximity to the unrest in the Black Sea region to the north. On June 24, leaders of 11 nations, including six former Soviet republics, met in Istanbul to sign a declaration of Black Sea economic cooperation.
Turkey's interest in these regions stems not only from contemporary concerns but also from an awareness of history. The roots of the Turkish people and their language lie in the steppes of Central Asia. The nations of the Balkans and the Islamic communities fighting for their existence in that region were once part of the Ottoman empire. The history that guides Turkish policy today, however, is not that of the ancient past, but of the modern state and its founder, Mustapha Kemal Ataturk. Ataturk emphasized the need to build a modern, secular state within the boundaries agreed to after World War I and to set aside any dreams of recreating an empire. …