`Multiculturalism' versus the US Ideal
Everett Carll Ladd. Everett Carll Ladd is professor of political science the Roper Center ., The Christian Science Monitor
A DEBATE has been raging in American education over ideas and curriculums known under the rubric of "multiculturalism." For all the heat that's been generated, the crux of the argument still seems poorly understood. Martin Luther King Jr., whose contributions we're now celebrating, said much that bears on this debate.
The claim of multiculturalism isn't simply that the many ethnic and other cultural backgrounds of the United States public should be recognized, and that schools should encourage respect for all of them. From day one, Americans committed to a pluralistic society have had to struggle against intolerance. We still do. But the goal of broad recognition and respect isn't in dispute in the argument between "multiculturalists" and their critics.
Neither is anyone now claiming that Americans should forget their ethnic roots. Families have celebrated their national backgrounds, taught children about them, sought to maintain elements of their ethnic identities, and the like, from the earliest years of the country's settlement.
The US is a country of exceptional ethnic heterogeneity. Both multiculturalists and their critics recognize this. Both understand that the diversity has been the source of persistent conflict, but see it nonetheless as, overall, a source of strength.
What, then, is at issue? The argument revolves around the character of American nationalism, its role in the country's past, and its potential for the future. As many observers have long recognized, this nationalism is of a very special sort and makes highly unusual demands.
Most nations today are held together by shared ethnic identity. The US, in contrast, has never been ethnically based. Instead, its national identity is derived ideologically. In G. K. Chesterton's famous formulation, "America is the only nation in the world that is founded on a creed."
This creed, or public philosophy, has received many statements, but none clearer or more elegant than that in the Declaration of Independence. Abraham Lincoln often called attention to the Declaration's pivotal place as the foundation of American national identity. …