Development Projects' High Social Cost Seen Report Examines Impact on Indigenous Populations
S. C. Llewelyn Leach, writer of The Christian Science Monitor, The Christian Science Monitor
THE United Nations Commission on Human Rights has unanimously condemned forced evictions of people for large-scale development projects, moves often involving the resettlement of entire communities.
Meeting in Geneva last week, the commission termed such actions as a "gross violation of human rights."
The evidence against big development projects, most often in the third world, has been mounting as international charities like Oxfam, environmental organizations, and nongovernmental groups have assessed the impact on local populations.
Forced resettlement "rarely turns out well," notes a study released last week by the Panos Institute in London. "In virtually every major scheme across the world, however carefully the resettlement appeared to have been planned, the overall effect on the displaced population has been to increase hardship and suffering."
"What is delivered frequently falls short of what was promised," the report continues. "And the beneficiaries of the project are rarely those who have been resettled."
In China more than 10 million people have been displaced by 80,000 dams since 1949. A third of those resettled were so impoverished by the move that "they could not afford proper food and clothing," according to the report.
In India, of 15 million people displaced by dams, reservoirs, industry, and parks since independence 50 years ago, only 4 million have been properly resettled, according to the India Social Institute. The rest ended up flooding into the cities to work as daily wage laborers.
Funding for many of these projects comes from the World Bank, which has projects under way or on the drawing board that would displace a further 3 million people, Panos says. Poor planning, inaccurate cost estimates, and meagre resettlement packages for the people affected are three key problems. …