Kenya Manages to Slow Population Growth Rate Economic Conditions in Africa Make Family Planning More Popular
Robert M. Press, writer of The Christian Science Monitor, The Christian Science Monitor
A LOT of Kenyan parents still ask their married children when they are going to have another baby and name it after them. And many Kenyan men refuse to practice family planning.
But on the eve of the United Nations' World Population Day, July 11, Kenyan and other experts are convinced that after years of widespread disinterest, Kenyans are showing growing acceptance of family planning.
They attribute the change in attitude to a variety of factors: Kenya's declining economy, the threat of AIDS, increasing levels of education, greater availability of family planning services, and Kenyan government and donor support for such services.
As a result, Kenya's population growth rate has dropped from 3.8 percent in 1979 - one of the highest in the world - to about 3.5 percent today, which represents a turnaround after several decades of increasing rates.
And the downward trend in Kenya is accelerating, says Richard Cornelius, a population expert with the US Agency for International Development. Since 1972, USAID has been the major donor to Kenyan population programs. Education is key
Kenya joins Zimbabwe and Botswana in slowing population growth, holding out hope that other countries in Africa may eventually do the same. A key to the progress on population in all three of these countries is a relatively high level of education and strong government commitment to family planning, Mr. Cornelius says.
But Africa still has the highest population growth rate of any continent, about 3 percent, compared to 2.1 percent in Latin America, 2 percent in Asia, and 0.8 percent in North America, according to the Washington-based Population Reference Bureau.
Even Africa's success stories don't match the progress made in other third-world countries. Kenyan women, for instance, have an average of 6.5 children; the average for all women in the developing world is 4.
Family planning proponents argue that slowing population growth in Kenya will help reduce future pressure on the job market and demand for land, both potentially explosive issues in this economically struggling country.
There is already widespread unemployment and less than 20 percent of Kenya's land is considered good for farming. Farm land is passed on from father to sons, chopped into smaller and smaller pieces with each generation. The burden of having a large family is becoming more and more evident.
Such pressures, plus urban overcrowding, are reasons why Kenya's "political commitment is strong" on family planning, says Margaret Gachara, deputy director of Kenya's Division of Family Planning. …