US Agenda in Latin America Must Extend beyond Trade Administration Should Increase Attention to Problems of Poverty and Inequality in Latin America
Peter Hakim. Peter Hakim is president of the Inter-American Dialogue ., The Christian Science Monitor
FOR the past year, United States policy toward Latin America and the Caribbean has been hostage to the North American Free Trade Agreement.
Although the Clinton administration was impelled to respond to crises in Haiti and a few other countries, progress toward developing a comprehensive policy for the region was blocked by the uncertain outcome of the trade pact with Mexico and Canada. With NAFTA's approval, the foundation is set for the US to take the lead in building an expanding partnership of western Hemisphere nations.
Administration officials are well aware of NAFTA's historic importance for the future of US-Latin American relations. Following its approval, President Clinton quickly arranged a meeting with the leaders of seven Central American countries. Vice President Gore visited Mexico and announced US plans for a summit meeting of the hemisphere's democratically elected heads of state later this year, the first since 1967. And the president and his advisers have again called for the forging of a "Western Hemisphere Community of Democracies." Yet these are only symbolic gestures. They must now be followed by concrete actions.
The immediate challenge for the US and its North American trade partners is to transform NAFTA into a hemisphere-wide free-trade club. Consultations with other regional governments should begin now to establish the criteria, procedures, and timetables for incorporating other nations into NAFTA.
But the US agenda in Latin America goes far beyond trade matters. The Organization of American States needs US leadership to make it a more effective mechanism for promoting and defending democratic practices. In recent years, the OAS has demonstrated its potential for contributing to the advancement of democracy. But it remains constrained by differing national views of the organization's role and internal operational weaknesses.
The US can help by consistently keeping to its own commitment to multilateral action; pressing for the election of a strong secretary-general in next year's vote; working to expand the mandate and resources of the Inter-American Commission for Human Rights and the OAS's Unit for Democracy; and encouraging incipient OAS efforts to tackle the thorny problem of civil-military relations in Latin America. It is vital that the US not retreat from its pledge to restore civilian leadership to Haiti, including its expressed willingness to join other nations under United Nations auspices in establishing a military presence in the country.
* Even as US aid programs shrink, US policy should increase attention to the problems of poverty and inequality in Latin America. The administration should assure an adequate capital replenishment for the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), emphasizing stepped-up lending to poorer countries, and use its influence in the IDB and other international agencies to expand anti-poverty financing. …