Computers Spark New Renaissance Artists, Technicians, and Philosophers Work Together to Craft New Images and Realities
Marien, Mary Warner, The Christian Science Monitor
AT the end of his essay on computer-generated images, Florian Rotzer relates the late 20th century to the Italian Renaissance.
During both periods, he argues, artists, technicians, and philosophers worked collaboratively.
In the Renaissance, they devised an elaborate system of perspective that has held firm for hundreds of years.
In our time, science and art are participating in the creation of an equally profound and long-lasting theory and practice of visual representation: virtual reality.
Rotzer's optimism recalls the unfulfilled forecasts for the telephone, radio, television, cable, and satellite communication systems.
Yet despite the ardor of advocacy that pervades "Iterations: The New Image," its collection of essays persuasively reviews the repercussions computer-based imaging has had on recent art.
Timothy Druckrey, editor of "Iterations" and an early historian of digital media, observes in his essay that electronic imagery has the capacity to alter our connection to the world of everyday experience.
Before the computer, the camera recorded traces of optical reality. However blurry or abstract, the object in a photograph had to have been before the lens. In an important sense, the photograph assured us of the natural world's reliability.
But with computer images, that well-rehearsed relationship to reality changes. Where the camera took pictures, the computer makes pictures through complicated mathematical procedures. Reality need never be consulted.
Likewise, the computer images generated through what is called virtual reality, that is, optical experience keyed to eye and body movements, challenge the relationship between what we know and what we experience.
Put on the virtual reality helmet and glove, and feel yourself accept as real what the eye appears to glimpse and what the hand seems to manipulate. In its advanced forms, interactive experience allows one to create fluid movement within the alternative reality. The images do not appear outside oneself, like optical illusions in a fun-house.
With computer-generated images, perception no longer guarantees what is real and what is not. Seeing is no longer believing.
To proponents of computer imagery, the idea that virtual reality may soon have the palpable presence of the most convincing dream is far from ominous. Druckrey argues that interactive computer work parallels the emergence of multiculturalism. Where others envision an entertainment excess, Druckrey conceives a richly diverse plurality of experience.
Few would dispute the continuing influence of computers on artists, who find that digital technology allows them to mix image, text, and sound in a new form of montage. Among the artists in "Iterations" is MANUAL, a Texas-based team that uses computer technology to underscore the false autonomy of nature and humanity. …