Earth Day at 25: A US Environmental Report Card 'Green Thinking' Now Influences Practices Nationwide, but Nuclear and Toxic Waste Problems Top List of Sobering Trends Series: EARTH DAY. One of Three Articles Appearing Today
Brad Knickerbocker writer of The Christian Science Monitor, The Christian Science Monitor
Since the first Earth Day 25 years ago Saturday, Americans have gotten a lot "greener" in their attitude toward the environment.
"We weren't aware at that time that there even was an environment, let alone that there was a problem with it," says Bruce Anderson, president of Earth Day USA, national coordinating headquarters for activities going on across the country this week.
But what began as a blip on the screen of public affairs -- the domain of a relative handful of conservationists, natural scientists, and occasional Jeremiahs like "Silent Spring" author Rachel Carson -- has grown into a full-fledged social movement. Business executives, educators, politicians, religious leaders, and millions of grass-roots Americans are involved.
"The support, the understanding, the concern has increased many, many times," says Gaylord Nelson, the former governor and United States senator from Wisconsin who thought up the first Earth Day in 1970.
And what has been the result of all this activism and the consequent legislation pushed by Republican and Democratic administrations and lawmakers? According to US government reports:
*Hydrocarbon emissions from motor vehicles have dropped from 10.3 million tons a year to 5.5 million tons.
*The number of metropolitan areas violating air standards for carbon monoxide has declined from 40 to nine.
*The phaseout of leaded gasoline has reduced the release of lead into the air by 98 percent.
*The quantity of toxic chemicals spilling into the air and water from factories and other industrial sources has declined 43 percent.
*With passage of the California Desert Protection Act last year, the national wilderness system now totals more than 100 million acres.
*The American alligator and the California gray whale have been removed from the endangered-species list, and the bald eagle -- the American symbol that once faced extinction -- is making a healthy comeback.
Despite serious issues that remain, the world is "a safer and healthier place," says Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administrator Carol Browner.
"We banned dangerous and widely used pesticides like DDT and helped to make recycling a household habit," she says. "We reduced toxic air emissions and established fuel standards for automobiles. We established strong public-health standards for drinking water and eliminated direct dumping of raw sewage into our rivers, lakes, and streams."
A kind of "green thinking" has become part of policies and practices. Conservation measures passed as part of the 1985 farm bill have helped reduce soil erosion on farmland by 63 percent. Uncle Sam now requires federal agencies to buy writing and printing paper with 20 percent recycled content.
Businesses have been responding as well.
Analysts at Price Waterhouse reported recently that 40 percent of the companies it surveyed have elevated oversight of environmental compliance to their board of directors. That's nearly twice as many as in 1992 and three times the figure for 1990.
Seventy-three percent of companies surveyed by Price Waterhouse now conduct environmental audits -- up from 40 percent in 1992. And 38 percent are factoring environmental performance into incentive compensation for executives and managers.
Much of the improvement has come at the grass roots. There were 600 community recycling programs in 1988; today, there are about 6,600. EPA reports that 22 percent of all municipal solid waste was recovered for recycling or composting in 1993 - up from 17 percent in 1990. Last year, there was such a shortage of recyclables that market prices in some places jumped 200 percent. Advanced-technology lights, motors, and building designs have helped save a lot of energy and therefore prevented pollution.
"Since 1979 this country has gotten about 4-1/2 times as much new energy from savings as from all net increases in energy supply put together," says Amory Lovins, energy expert at the Rocky Mountain Institute in Colorado. …