The US and China: A New Consensus Stable Relations Are Vulnerable to Disruption by Human Rights Abuses or Other Excesses by Beijing
Sam Nunn and Michel Oksenberg, The Christian Science Monitor
At least temporarily, the United States and China have halted last spring's dangerous drift toward rivalry and acrimony. Secretary of State Warren Christopher visited Beijing this week. President Clinton and Chinese President Jiang Zemin meet in Manila next week, to be followed by a trip to Washington by the Chinese defense minister and exchanges at the presidential and vice presidential level next year.
A new and fragile consensus on China policy in Washington and among the American people permits this flurry of diplomatic activity. Rejecting the extremes of hostility to China or a warm embrace on Beijing's terms, the consensus - still in the process of formation - seeks cooperation with China while realistically accepting disagreements where values and interests diverge.
*The US should continue to adhere to the policy enunciated by President Nixon in the 1972 Shanghai Communique and endorsed by every president since then. It acknowledges the Chinese view that there is but one China, and Taiwan is part of it. *China's growing role in world affairs is one of the major developments of our era. Our government must devote sustained attention to Sino-American relations, and policy must be coordinated at the highest levels. Frequent exchanges of view must occur with China's leaders. *The US has an interest in a prosperous, stable, and unified mainland that is effectively and humanely governed. A strong, secure, and well-led China can contribute to global economic growth and the maintenance of peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region, while a weak, divided, or isolated China would surely threaten the region's peace and prosperity. *(The US should seek to work constructively with China to facilitate its entry, on mutually acceptable terms, into the international regimes that regulate and order world affairs. China will be more likely to adhere to international norms that it has helped to shape. But China's entry must not be permitted on terms that jeopardize the purpose of those regimes. Examples include the World Trade Organization, the Missile Technology Control Regime, and the G-7 organization of industrial nations with China in the same status as Russia. *The US is determined to retain a comprehensive, unofficial relationship with Taiwan. Americans feel moral obligations to the people of Taiwan and admire their economic and political progress. The Taiwan Relations Act appropriately governs America's relations with this thriving democracy. The past 25 years demonstrate that Taiwan flourishes best when relations between the US and China are sound. The overarching American interest is in a peaceful reconciliation of Taiwan and the mainland. Realistically, Taiwan can best secure a greater international voice and stature through cooperation with Beijing, not provocation of it. *To attain all these objectives, the US must retain a robust military presence in the western Pacific. Effective multilateral security arrangements in East Asia may eventually supplement the bilateral treaties, but at present there is no substitute for the Japanese-American and Korean-American security treaties. These treaties are not directed against China. Rather they maintain stability, enhance the security of the entire region, and thereby deter an arms race or proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Indeed, the treaties enable current development of bodies such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations regional forum. *The US - especially the private sector - should cooperate with China in its efforts to develop institutions necessary for its continued modernization: a legal system and the rule of law; a strengthened judiciary; an effective banking and revenue system; a civil service system; strengthened representative assemblies; competitive, democratic elections of local officials; and a vibrant press. …