Attack Turns Eyes to Chiapas Killing of 45 Indians Last Week the Result of Year of Growing Unrest in Southern Mexico
Howard LaFranchi, writer of The Christian Science Monitor, The Christian Science Monitor
Four years after an Indian uprising shook Mexico and captivated much of the world, the state of Chiapas is once again the focus of attention here.
The cause this time is last week's massacre of 45 Tzotzil Indians in Acteal, a small Indian village in the violence-plagued Chiapas municipality of Chenalho.
The deadliest single day of violence in Chiapas since the Jan. 1, 1994, Zapatista uprising underscores the smoldering nature of the conflict. While the government has attempted to marginalize the Chiapas issue, problems of land distribution, religious conflict, political rivalries, and discrimination against Indians - plus such new elements as the appearance of paramilitary organizations - have only worsened. The government and the Zapatistas reached an accord on indigenous rights in 1996 - the first and, some observers say, easiest chapter in a set of issues. But the government failed to translate the substance of the agreement into constitutional amendments. That failure produced a year-long stalemate during which conditions in Chiapas have deteriorated. The Acteal killings occurred Dec. 22, when dozens of masked gunmen moved into a small churchyard where Indian families, already displaced by violence earlier in the year, had taken refuge. Most of the victims were women and children. The attorney general's initial investigation found the killers were part of an organization named Red Mask. The gunmen were also Indians, but with political and economic affiliations that - along with their high-powered weapons and uniform clothing - indicate they were acting on behalf of more powerful forces. Everardo Moreno, assistant attorney general for investigations, said initial questioning among more than 40 suspects revealed that many were affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) of President Ernesto Zedillo, the ruling party in Chiapas. On Saturday the mayor of Chenalho, a PRI member, was arrested on charges of providing arms and vehicles used in the massacre. More than 20 other local men were also arrested. Survivors claim that police not only failed to take action against the gunmen, but in some cases took part in the shootings. A top state official admitted that he had been called on Dec. 22 about reports of violence in Acteal, but said that a police investigation reported "no shooting, no burning houses" had been found. The massacre places intense pressure on the government, especially since religious, human rights, and opposition figures in Chiapas have produced letters proving they had warned the government since October of building tension and increasing paramilitary activity in northern Chiapas. …