Water Woes: Deforestation Could Dry Up the Panama Canal Increased Population and Management Problems Threaten the Lakes That Supply Water for Canal Operations and Drinking Water for the Capital

By Jon Mitchell, | The Christian Science Monitor, October 23, 1997 | Go to article overview

Water Woes: Deforestation Could Dry Up the Panama Canal Increased Population and Management Problems Threaten the Lakes That Supply Water for Canal Operations and Drinking Water for the Capital


Jon Mitchell,, The Christian Science Monitor


The lines of worry across Venancio Aquilar's face are deep as he unloads his fishing net, a small motor, and 12 pounds of fish from his small canoe.

For Mr. Aquilar, it has been a disappointing morning's fishing on the murky green waters of Lake Madden. "In reality, I'm fighting," he says, as he carries his equipment to a small house built of wood and unplastered concrete blocks. The 12 pounds of fish will net him $6, barely enough to feed his family for one day after he pays for the gas spent out on the lake.

The economic plight of Aquilar and thousands of others living in the Panama Canal watershed area - 805,776 acres of land surrounding the waterway - has become a big problem for the government's Panama Canal Commission (PCC). Scientists from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama City are warning that population pressure, corruption, and unchecked urbanization could seriously affect the watershed environment and with it, future canal operations. "Panama is a gift of the Chagres," notes Stanley Heckadon, a senior scientist at STRI, equating the river's importance with that of the Nile to Egypt. Without the Chagres River, United States construction of the Panama Canal from 1903 to 1914 would have been tough at best, he says. The source of the Chagres is high in what is termed the "Upper Watershed" - a series of emerald-green mountains blanketed by tropical cloud forest. This ecosystem ensures that billions of gallons of water run into Lake Madden and Lake Gatun, which provide the necessary draft for transiting ships through the vital link to world commerce. The forest canopy prevents the canal's worst enemy - silt due to soil erosion - from blocking both the dams and lakes and in turn, the waterway itself. This huge water reserve provides the millions of gallons needed to operate the canal's three lock systems and, perhaps more important, clean drinking water for Panama City. Some 80 percent of the capital's residents rely on the lakes for their water. In recent years, however, migration has put the fragile watershed under pressure. Population in the area has soared since the opening of the trans-Isthmian highway in 1947. In 1960, just 37,000 people inhabited the area; now more than 150,000 live there, many below the poverty line. Many rural Panamanians see subsistence farming as their only means of survival, leading to increased deforestation. While Panama has relatively more tropical forest cover than any other country in Central America, it's also clearing its forests faster than any other, at a rate of 148,200 acres each year. The situation is not much better on the canal watershed, although it has dramatically improved since the 1970s, when studies by STRI revealed alarming rates of deforestation. The creation of national parks has helped, but forest cover over the entire watershed has dropped from 80 percent in 1952 to 20 percent in 1985. A new STRI study is due to be published next year that will define the post-1999 environmental policy of the Panama Canal Authority (PCA) - as the commission will be called when the waterway reverts to Panamanian control. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Water Woes: Deforestation Could Dry Up the Panama Canal Increased Population and Management Problems Threaten the Lakes That Supply Water for Canal Operations and Drinking Water for the Capital
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.