Cancer, AIDS and Biomedical Research

By J. Donald Capra | THE JOURNAL RECORD, February 24, 1999 | Go to article overview

Cancer, AIDS and Biomedical Research


J. Donald Capra, THE JOURNAL RECORD


For the first time since statistics have been kept, we are now seeing a perceptible decrease in the death rates from cancer in the United States.

Many factors have contributed to this remarkable turnaround: better diagnosis, better treatment, and a better understanding of the role enviromental agents play in the development of this disease.

For example, while we have known for more than 30 years that cigarette smoking was strongly associated with lung cancer, it has been only relatively recently that we have appreciated that cigarette smoking is related to increased incidences of several other cancers as well -- cancer of the lip, mouth, esophagus, stomach and colon. Additionally, it has taken three decades of public service campaigns in the media to make the public aware of the dangers of cigarette smoking. Finally, since cancer as related to cigarette smoking occurs after years of exposure to cigarette smoke, it would naturally be many years before we would see a fall in cancer rates because of smoking cessation programs. Scientists and physicians now see cancer as fundamentally different from smallpox, polio or other viral-type diseases. In the case of polio, for example, three viruses cause the disease. Thus, vaccines could be prepared that prevented infection. We now understand that cancer is many diseases, with the common denominator being the uncontrolled growth of cells. Even the cutting-edge genetic approaches are more complex than we first believed. Rather than there being a single or a few genes that predispose one to certain cancers, we now apprecate that there are literally hundreds of genes that are involved in various stages of cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Cancer, AIDS and Biomedical Research
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.