The Impact of Climate Change on Golf Participation in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA): A Case Study

By Scott, Daniel; Jones, Brenda | Journal of Leisure Research, Third Quarter 2006 | Go to article overview

The Impact of Climate Change on Golf Participation in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA): A Case Study


Scott, Daniel, Jones, Brenda, Journal of Leisure Research


Introduction

Weather and climate have a major influence on the outdoor recreation sector, including the length and quality of recreation seasons. The impact of the 2002 drought and wildfires on park visitation, fishing and rafting in the State of Colorado (Butler, 2002), reductions in boating opportunities on the Great Lakes from lower than normal water levels in 1999 to 2001 (Environment Canada, 2003), and the shortened ski seasons in the US Midwest from 1996-1999 (Scott, 2005) are just three recent examples. Despite the importance of weather and climate to outdoor recreation, the sensitivity of individual recreation industries to climate variability has not been adequately assessed (de Freitas, 2003; Scott, McBoyle, & Mills, 2003; Wall, 1992). Understanding of the potentially important implications of global climate change for the outdoor recreation sector also remains very limited (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001; Scott, McBoyle, & Schwartzentruber, 2004; Wall, 1992).

The golf industry is one of the largest recreation sectors in North America and one that is highly influenced by weather and climate. There are approximately 20,000 golf courses (World Golf Foundation, 2001) and some 30 million amateur golfers (Royal Canadian Golf Association, 1999a; World Golf Foundation, 2001) in North America. In 2000, golf accounted for US$62 billion worth of goods and services in the Unites States alone, of which US$20.5 billion in revenues were generated directly at golf facilities, mainly through green fees (World Golf Foundation, 2002). By comparison, the golf sector is estimated to approximate the economic size of the motion picture industry in the United States (US$57.8 billion) (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001).

Before further discussing the sensitivity of the golf industry to weather and climate, it is important to distinguish "weather" from "climate" because the two terms are often erroneously used interchangeably. Weather is defined as the day-to-day conditions of the atmosphere (e.g., sun, cloud, rain and fog, amount of rain, wind speed, temperature and humidity). Weather tends to affect golf on a short-term basis-hourly to daily. For example, the time required for thick morning fog to dissipate could delay a course from opening for hours, while an afternoon thunderstorm could suspend play for several hours because of the threat posed by lightening or by heavy rainfall and standing water. By comparison, climate is defined as the long-term average behavior of weather in a given location (Aguado & Burt, 2004), and generally affects golf on longer temporal scales-weeks, months and years. Climate is a primary determinant of the length of the operating season of a golf course at a given location and has an important influence on golf participation. From a golf operations standpoint, climate also has important implications for irrigation, turf grass selection, and turf disease and pest management.

As evidenced by a range of media headlines, golf industry reports and professional journal articles, the golf industries in the United States and Canada are very aware of the importance of weather and climate to their business. Table 1 highlights a number of recent newspaper headlines associated with stories about the impact of weather and climate on golf participation in different regions of the United States. According to the 2007 Golf 20/20 Industry Report, the single most important factor impacting rounds played [both positively and negatively each year] continues to be weather1 (World Golf Foundation, 2001). In a survey of 2,426 golf courses in the United States, 52% identified climate variability as the leading reason for lower than expected rounds played in 2000 and 2001, while 35% cited climatic variability as the primary reason for higher than expected rounds played (World Golf Foundation, 2004). By comparison, less than 10% of golf courses participating in the same survey identified the economy or course renovations in positively or negatively influencing rounds played. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

The Impact of Climate Change on Golf Participation in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA): A Case Study
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.