Self-Determination and Dependency. Jamaica's Foreign Relations, 1972-1989

By Malaki, Akhil | Ibero-americana, July 1, 2002 | Go to article overview

Self-Determination and Dependency. Jamaica's Foreign Relations, 1972-1989


Malaki, Akhil, Ibero-americana


Holger Henke, Self-Determination and Dependency. Jamaica's Foreign Relations, 1972-1989, The University of West Indies Press, Mona, Jamaica, 2000 (221 pages). ISBN 976-640-058-X.

The 1970s and 1980s are decades when Jamaica underwent a process of not just protracted polarization in national politics and ideology, but even economic decline. Interestingly enough, neither Manley's PNP and its democratic socialism, nor Seaga's JLP and orthodox neoliberal policies have helped Jamaica out of its structural crisis. On the contrary, they have served to accentuate the structural problems. Why hasn't Jamaica's foreign policy approach of either government ameliorated Jamaica's condition of structural dependency? Why has the country's foreign policy perpetuated dependency instead? To what extent the external and internal factors have shaped Jamaica's foreign policy approaches that have only served to perpetuate dependency? These are the fundamental questions Self-Determination and Dependency addresses. The emphasis is on the "socioeconomic nature of foreign relations, i.e. their rootedness in the economic sphere of production and the dependent states' position within the global hierarchies of capitalist production and exchange" (p. 4).

Holger Henke uses the more sophisticated variant of Cardoso and Faletto's dependency perspective in his foreign policy analysis. In doing so he notes thus; "The systemic foreign policy process of a structurally dependent state can then be specified as the concrete expression of the contending priority interests of social forces of which the bourgeoisie usually has the ideological and political hegemony. The struggle for this expression is rooted in the sphere of production, i.e. relations of production" (p. 6). He tries to incorporate Cardoso and Faletto's 'dependent capitalism' with Poulantzas' 'relative autonomy' of the state that focuses on contradictions among or between international capital and local bourgeoisie in creating a political context from which Jamaica's foreign policy approaches have emerged. By combining the two perspectives, the Henke arrives at a model of 'dependent state's foreign policy'. In this model, "the dependent state's degree of relative autonomy tends to direct its foreign policy actions... The sum of the actions and interactions of all social forces operating in the global and domestic economy determines the particular form and direction of a dependent state's foreign policy at a specific historical juncture" (p. 13).

Chapters 2 and 3 trace the internal and external dynamics between 1972 and 1980. In this period, the contradiction between the domestic capitalist class and Manley's democratic socialism gets accentuated leading to polarization. The state exercised its relative autonomy in foreign policy by not taking into confidence the domestic bourgeois. Towards the end of the decade, however, the government becomes more receptive and involves the bourgeoisie in bauxite negotiations. In the international scenario, several events like the oil crisis, financial mobility of petrodollars, the NIEO, made the developing countries increasingly 'internationalized'. During the same period, Jamaica tried to pursue an independent foreign policy towards Cuba that sparked antagonisms within and abroad, especially the US (chapter 4). As chapter 5 shows, the opposition JLP and the business community amplified these antagonisms. Thus, by the end of 1970s, Jamaica's foreign policy relations reflected an 'internationalization of domestic factors'. The attack on Manley's domestic economic policies instead became an attack on the government's foreign policy. The non-cooperation stand by the domestic bourgeoisie undermined the economy, which only served to bring the country under external control (IMF and US). The excessive rhetoric in Jamaica's foreign policy shifted the domestic balance of forces away from PNP. The end result was that Jamaica's more or less independent foreign policy was compromised. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Self-Determination and Dependency. Jamaica's Foreign Relations, 1972-1989
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.