Effect of Bilingualism and Computer Video Game Experience on the Simon Task

By Bialystok, Ellen | Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, March 2006 | Go to article overview

Effect of Bilingualism and Computer Video Game Experience on the Simon Task


Bialystok, Ellen, Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology


Abstract

A group of 97 participants who were monolingual or bilingual and who had extensive practice playing computer video games or not completed two Simon tasks. The tasks were presented in two conditions that manipulated the number of response switches required in each block of trials. Bilingualism and video-game experience each influenced a different aspect of performance: Video-game players were faster in most conditions, including control conditions that did not include conflict from irrelevant position; bilinguals were faster only in a condition that required the most controlled attention to resolve conflict from the position and the stimulus. The results show the potential of experience to modify performance and point to subtle processing differences in various versions of the Simon task.

Résumé Un groupe composé de 97 participants unilingues ou bilingues, adeptes ou non de jeux vidéo à l'ordinateur, ont effectué deux tâches de Simon. Les tâches étaient présentées en fonction de deux conditions expérimentales, qui modifiaient le nombre de permutations nécessaires aux réponses données à chaque bloc d'essais expérimentaux. Le bilinguisme et la pratique des jeux vidéo à l'ordinateur ont eu, tous deux, un effet sur un aspect distinct de la performance : les joueurs de jeux vidéo étaient plus rapides dans la plupart des conditions, y compris les conditions de contrôle qui n'entraînaient aucun conflit lorsque le participant choisissait une position non pertinente; les participants bilingues étaient plus rapides uniquement lorsqu'ils étaient soumis à la condition qui demandait le niveau le plus élevé d'attention pour résoudre un conflit provoqué par la position et le stimulus. Les résultats de l'étude montrent que l'expérience peut modifier le rendement et met en évidence des différences de traitement subtiles pendant l'exécution de différentes versions de la tâche de Simon.

The Simon task, developed as a means of studying the relationship between gender and handedness (Simon & Rudell, 1967), has become a powerful tool for demonstrating the effect of stimulus-response compatibility on performance and is the basis for a wide range of research investigating attentional processes and executive functions (review in Lu & Proctor, 1995). In the task, stimuli containing both position and response information are presented with a rule that requires participants to ignore the position and respond only to the relevant target feature. When the stimulus appears on the same display side as the correct response key, both position and response information converge on the correct response and the trial is called congruent. When the position conflicts with the correct response, the trials are called incongruent. The reliable increment in response time for the incongruent trials compared to the congruent ones, usually between 20 and 30 milliseconds, is the Simon effect.

The task is deceptively simple, yet the requirement to attend only to the target information in the face of conflicting position information engages a variety of processes. The most prevalent explanation for the Simon effect is that it reflects stimulus-response (S-R) incompatibility because of response-selection processes: The location is coded even though it is irrelevant, creating longer reaction times when the stimulus location and the response key are incongruent (Lu & Proctor, 1995). In the dual-route interpretation, the conflict is attributed to response-response (R-R) incompatibility: The position engages automatic processes that activate the same side response and the target information is processed by an intentional system that associates the feature with a response (Hommel, 1993). Conflicting outcomes from these two systems take time to resolve and create the Simon effect. Finally, in a formulation offered by Hommel, Proctor, and Vu (2004), the features from the position and the response are integrated into an "event file" and the sequence of these combinatory representations determines the response time for a particular trial. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Effect of Bilingualism and Computer Video Game Experience on the Simon Task
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.