Inhibition of Return Lasts Longer at Repeatedly Stimulated Locations Than at Novel Locations

By Chao, Hsuan-Fu; Yeh, Yei-Yu | Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, October 2006 | Go to article overview

Inhibition of Return Lasts Longer at Repeatedly Stimulated Locations Than at Novel Locations


Chao, Hsuan-Fu, Yeh, Yei-Yu, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review


Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the fact that it takes longer for people to attend to recently examined locations than to novel locations. It has been argued that a single mechanism governs both IOR and negative priming (NP). If this is true, IOR and NP should share similar characteristics. Since NP depends on the use of repeated stimuli, in this study the dependence of IOR on repeated stimuli was explored. Experiments 1A-1D showed that, at longer cue-to-target-onset asynchrony (CTOA) intervals (613 and 906 msec), IOR could be observed only at repeatedly stimulated locations. However, IOR was observed when CTOA was short (253 msec) regardless of stimulus repetition. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated Experiments 1A-1D with a within-subjects design. The important role of memory representations in IOR is proposed.

To successfully and efficiently facilitate location of a target object in one's environment, one should utilize past experiences. This can be accomplished in multiple ways. One can learn the contingency between the target location and the search array (Chun & Jiang, 1998). When items to be searched are presented at two different times, one can purposely search through new items (Belopolsky, Theeuwes, & Kramer, 2005; Watson & Humphreys, 1997). The phenomenon of inhibition of return (IOR), which originally referred to a slower response to a recently attended location than to an uncued location, suggests that people can choose to search an item that has not been searched recently. Furthermore, people may achieve this by selectively inhibiting the previously searched items (Klein & Maclnnes, 1999; Posner & Cohen, 1984). In the present study, we investigated IOR to reveal how the inhibitory process influences behavior through the memory processes.

A cuing paradigm is generally used to study IOR. After the presence of an abrupt-onset cue, a target is presented either at the location previously occupied by the cue or at an uncued location. If the cue-to-target-onset asynchrony (CTOA) interval is short, a facilitatory effect is usually observed. Responses to targets at cued locations are faster than those to targets at uncued locations. If the CTOA interval is longer (e.g., more than 250 msec), responses to targets at cued locations are slower. It is hypothesized that attention is initially drawn to the cued location and then disengaged from that location, after which the previously searched location is inhibited, resulting in IOR (Posner & Cohen, 1984).

Inhibition has also been proposed as the mechanism of negative priming (NP; Tipper, 1985), which refers to a slowed response to previous distractors. Thus, it has been suggested that IOR and NP may share similar mechanisms (see, e.g., Buckolz, Boulougouris, O'Donnell, & Pratt, 2002; Christie & Klein, 2001 ; Houghton & Tipper, 1994). For example, Houghton and Tipper developed a computational model of inhibition that accounts for both IOR and NP. Also, response to a previous target location was found to be slow in an NP paradigm, showing an IOR-like effect with an NP procedure (see, e.g., Christie & Klein, 2001).

If the same inhibitory mechanism underlies both the IOR and NP, these two effects should follow the same operating principle. NP is usually contingent on stimulus repetition. The studies of Strayer, Grison, and colleagues (Orison & Strayer, 2001; Malley & Strayer, 1995; Strayer & Grison, 1999) demonstrated the dependence of identity NP on the use of repeated identities. Chao and Yeh (2005) showed that location NP in a naming task was dependent on the use of repeated locations. Both identity NP and location NP could be observed only when the stimuli had been used many times in the experiment. According to Strayer, Grison, and their colleagues, the use of repeated stimuli is critical to NP because only high-activation distractors are subject to inhibition. Moreover, it was found that the use of repeated stimuli as probe distractors could increase interference in the probe trial, which was important for the observation of NP in a naming task (Chao, Yeh, & Yang, 2003). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Inhibition of Return Lasts Longer at Repeatedly Stimulated Locations Than at Novel Locations
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.