The Romanian Version of Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form 3 (Ysq-S3)
Trip, Simona, Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies
The Young Schema Questionnaire - Short form 3 (YSQ-S3) consists of 114 items and measures eighteen cognitive schemas. To establish the psychometric properties of the Romanian version of YSQ-S3, 160 participants were involved in the research. The instrument and its sub-scales have a very good reliability, the a Cronbach coefficients run between .68 and .96. To test the discriminative validity of this measure, the comparisons between the subjects with low scores and high scores were made both for the level of anxiety as a state and as a trait. The Romanian version of YSQ-S3 has a good discriminative validity. Based on YSQ-S3 scores it can be predicted the social phobia development and significant correlation was found between YSQ-S3 and automatic thoughts (ATQ) scores.
Key words: cognitive schemas, schema-focused therapy
Jeffrey Young (see Young et al., 2003) introduces the term of early maladaptive schemas and define them as being larger themes regarding the self and own relationships with the others which develop during childhood, become more complex during life time and are dysfunctional in a certain measure. His schema-focused therapy, based on the concept of cognitive schemas, is one of the most influential form of cognitive and behavioral therapies today.
To evaluate the cognitive schemas, Young and his collaborators (see Young et al., 2003) developed the Schemas Questionnaire. The first forms of the questionnaire were YSQ- L2 (Young Schema Questionnaire - long form 2) and YSQ-S2 (Young Schema Questionnaire - short form 2). YSQ- L2 (Young Schema Questionnaire - long form 2) has 205 items and measures 16 of the maladaptive cognitive schemas (Ed, Ab, Ma, Si, Ds, Su, Fa, Di, Vh, Em, Sb, Ss, Ei, Us, Et, Is). It is preferred to be used in clinical purposes, because it reveals each schema and, as a consequence, offers more information.
The short form YSQ - S2 consists of 75 items distributed as follows, on sub-scales: Ed, Ab, Ma, Si, Ds, Su, Fa, Di, Vh, Em, Sb, Ss, Ei, Us, Et, Is. It is frequently used in research because it can be filled in, in a shorter period of time. Recently, the authors (see Young et al., 2003) have reconsidered both forms of the questionnaire of the cognitive schemas, resulting YSQ - L3 and YSQ - S3. YSQ-L3 has 232 items and measures 18 maladaptive schemas. The Young Schema Questionnaire - Short form 3 (YSQ-S3) consists of 114 items and measures all eighteen cognitive schemas (sub-sacles):
1. Emotional Deprivation (ED) - the others don't offer us the nurturance, empathy and protection we need: items 1,25, 49, 73, 96;
2. Abandonment / Instability (AB) - the feeling that the close ones will not be able to emotionally support us, or to protect us and they will abandon us in favor of someone better: items 2, 26, 50, 74, 97;
3. Mistrust / Abuse (MA) - the belief that in the end, the others will intentionally hurt, abuse, humiliate, cheat, lie, manipulate, or take advantage on us: items 3, 27, 51, 75, 98;
4. Social isolation / Alienation(SI) - the sense that someone is different from others and is not part of any group: items 4, 28, 52, 76, 99;
5. Defectiveness / Shame (DS) -the feeling that one is bad, unwanted, inferior, in important respects; or that one would be unlovable to significant others: items 5, 29, 53, 77, 100;
6. Failure (FA)- the belief that one has failed and will inevitably fail in areas of achievement, so he is stupid, lower in status, or less successful than others: items 9, 33, 57, 81, 103;
7. Dependence / Incompetence (DI) - belief that one needs considerable help from others to handle one's everyday responsibilities in a competent manner: items 10,34, 58, 82, 104;
8. Vulnerability to harm or illness (VH) - Exaggerated fear that imminent illnesses, emotional or external catastrophe will strike at any time and that one will be unable to prevent it: items 11, 35, 59, 83, 105;