EDUCATION, COUNSELING, AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA/EDUCATION, COUNSELING, AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA: A Response to Doris Rhea Coy

By Coy, Doris Rhea; Fontaine, Yvette | Career Planning and Adult Development Journal, Winter 2004 | Go to article overview

EDUCATION, COUNSELING, AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA/EDUCATION, COUNSELING, AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA: A Response to Doris Rhea Coy


Coy, Doris Rhea, Fontaine, Yvette, Career Planning and Adult Development Journal


Background Information for this article was collected during my experience in Cuba [Figure 1] when I was selected by the People to People Ambassador Programs to lead an educational group to Cuba. The purpose of this program is to establish and maintain interpersonal communication among members of the world community. The program promotes friendly relations among all countries through scientific, professional, cultural, and technical exchanges. These exchanges focus on specialized disciplines. Ours were counseling and career development. Delegation members are invited primarily because of their professional background.

A Brief History

Education in the Republic of Cuba can be dated as before Fidel Castro, after Fidel Castro, and since 1990 (Coy, 2001). Before Fidel Castro, President Gerado Machado y Morales was overthrown in a coup, and Army Sergeant Fulgencio Batista seized power in August 1933. One of the prime motivations for the Revolution that overthrew General Machado in 1933 was better education, but in the post-war decades education made little progress. The constitution of 1940 expressed lofty ideals e.g., the Ministry of Education's budget should not be smaller than any other ministry's budget. Educational funds became a huge source of graft (Baker, 2000).

The corrupt Batista won, lost and stole power over the next 20 years while Cuba's assets were increasingly placed into foreign hands and Cuba crumbled. Before the revolutionaries attained power, education reflected the depressing and backward outlook of authorities who did not seem much interested in developing the human resources of the country (Valdes, 1972). The pre-revolutionary years of Cuban education present a concrete example of a country having the potential for educational growth, but hindered by a lack of leadership and structural obstacles (Baker, 2000).

The years of political corruption and social injustice finally came to a close in 1959, after a three-year guerrilla campaign led by young Fidel Castro along with Che' Guevara, Celia Sanchez and other now famous revolutionaries (Bonachea & Valdes, 1972; Deutschmann & Shnookal, 1989). According to government statistics, on the eve of the Revolution, 43 per cent of the population and half a million Cuban children went without school (Baker, 2000). Castro's government poured its heart and soul into improving the lot of the Cuban poor (Krich, 1981). First came health and education, where instant gains could be seen (Franqui, 1985). The educational situation of Cuba has undergone profound transformation (Coy, 2001).

The Soviet Union sent trade and technical delegations and bought up Cuba's sugar surplus. Cuba appeared to be improving (Valdes, 1972). The country's plight worsened when Eastern Europe collapsed in 1989, and Russia soon withdrew its 11,000 military personnel and technicians. Trade links with the Soviet bloc dissolved in the early 1990s, declining living standards and a large wave of attempted emigration led the government to liberalize some economic policies. It opened free markets for crafts and produce; granted 2.6 hectares of state land to farming cooperatives; increased soybean production to boost protein consumption; promoted certain types of self-employment; reorganized some state enterprises; and established joint ventures with foreign firms in tourism, mining, communications, and construction.

The economy experienced modest growth after 1994 but slowed to 1 percent in 1998. The economy grew 2.5 percent in 1999. Mexico and Canada are Cuba's most important trading partners. Life turned grim under what the Cubans call the "Special Period," which began when the Berlin Wall crashed and Cuba's Soviet lifeline was severed. Cuba went from down to destitute. What began as inconveniences turned to real hardships. Monthly allotments were greatly reduced (Blight, Allyn, & Welch, 1993). Cuba, the only country in Latin America to have eliminated hunger, began to suffer malnutrition. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

EDUCATION, COUNSELING, AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA/EDUCATION, COUNSELING, AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA: A Response to Doris Rhea Coy
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.