Information Operations for the Ground Commander

By Grange, David L; Kelley, James A | Military Review, March/April 1997 | Go to article overview

Information Operations for the Ground Commander


Grange, David L, Kelley, James A, Military Review


OPERATIONS in the 21 st century will be heavily based on knowledge derived from relevant information and intelligence [RII] collected, processed, analyzed and disseminated over a complex global system of systems. This evolving military information environment [MIE] will fundamentally change the way we, the Army, conduct operations in peace and in conflict.... The Army will integrate information operations [10] into every aspect of Army XXI."1 With this statement, Army Chief of Staff General Dennis J. Reimer charged commanders at all levels with being trained and ready to execute10. 10 is essential for the Army's wide range of ongoing missions, including support to the nation, peacetime engagement, conflict prevention and, certainly, defeating an adversary in combat.

While they should use the advantages 10 gives them, commanders also should recognize that the Army's reliance on information technologies creates new vulnerabilities and asymmetrical courses of action advantageous to an adversary. The information superiority concept relies on information's availability. Thus, we must protect our information and information systems (INFOSYS). 10 is evolving into a "total mind-set that adapts the means to achieve knowledge-based military [as well as diplomatic and economic] superiority over an adversary. ."2 These 10 concepts lead to new ways of thinking about warfare, new responsibilities and even new relationships for commanders to address. This article outlines lO's development in the Army and describes our new operating environment and how we are incorporating IO throughout the force. Some concepts for integrating IO into plans and contingencies are also offered.

Warfare's Changing Face

The challenges the Army faces are as dynamic as the world we live in. The rapid changes brought about by the computer chip and telecommunication advances have profoundly affected our environment. The world has become interconnected and interactive. The global information environment (GIE) evolves daily, as depicted in Figure 1. In conjunction with advances in science and computing power, the GIE brings tremendous benefits to humanity in fields such as medicine, education and manufacturing. This environment has great promise but also has new challenges, vulnerabilities and threats. There are no political or spatial boundaries, making what constitutes "acts of war" ambiguous.

Our nation's entire infrastructure-finance, energy, education, transportation, telecommunications, defense and most aspects of society-are linked together and interdependent. Even the Department of Defense relies on commercial telecommunication networks for more than 95 percent of its information traffic.3 These massive commercial networks are susceptible to attack and exploitation. This makes the United States, as the premier technologically dependent country in the world, more susceptible than anyone else to adversarial actions. Even for a poor adversary, IO offers a disproportionately high return for any investment.

Technological advances have not made for a safer, more secure world. The alarming increase in regional conflicts has heightened tensions and made the world more complex and unstable. Additionally, the fanaticism of some sects continues to cause worldwide destabilization. Terrorism is more sophisticated and could involve weapons of mass destruction and attacks on our computer networks and systems that control our power grids, air traffic and other critical infrastructures. The state-sponsored, transnational terrorist hacker is here and can hide in a mesh of interconnected systems. Even an unsophisticated opponent with very little money can obtain, or even hire, a wide range of capabilities from around the world. Technology such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), satellite surveillance, fiber-optic communications, direct broadcast systems, Internet access, cryptography, sensors and precision weapons are all commercially available. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Information Operations for the Ground Commander
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.