The Relationships between Aggressiveness, Peer Pressure and Parental Attitudes among Turkish High School Students

By Eldeleklioglu, Jale | Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, August 10, 2007 | Go to article overview

The Relationships between Aggressiveness, Peer Pressure and Parental Attitudes among Turkish High School Students


Eldeleklioglu, Jale, Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal


The relationships between aggressive behaviors, peer pressure, parental attitudes, and gender among 202 students from different public high schools were investigated in this study. Three scales were employed. Following the calculation of the correlation coefficients among the scores, a significant and positive relationship between the aggressiveness scores and the peer pressure, authoritarian and protective parental attitudes scores, and a significant and negative relationship between the aggressiveness scores and the democratic parental attitudes scores were found. Regression analysis was employed to see if the variables of peer pressure and parental attitudes predict the aggressiveness scores, and indicated that democratic parental attitudes, peer pressure and protective parental attitudes are the predictors of aggressiveness. Furthermore, the difference between the female and male students' aggressiveness score means was tested by using t test, and it was established that male students were more aggressive than were female students.

Keywords: aggressiveness, peer pressure, parental attitudes, adolescent, gender.

Aggressiveness has been defined as me behavior generally performed to obtain superiority, to set up dominance or to gain control over others with the intention of inflicting verbal or physical harm on others (Atkinson, Atkinson, & Hilgard, 1995). It has been found that the increasing physical power and energy during adolescence leads to aggressiveness (Kulaksizoglu, 1999). However, when the relevant research findings are examined, it appears that aggressiveness has no single cause but rather a number of variables affecting it. Among these variables are parental attitudes (Duncan, 1999; Orpinas, Murray, & Kelder, 1999), in-family violence (McGaha & Leoni, 1995; Straus & Kantor, 1994; Uz, 1989), presence of criminals in the family and child abuse (McEvoy & Welker, 2000), peer relationships (Barnow, Lucht, & Freyberger, 2001), socioeconomic status (Ilter-Kiper, 1984), and age and gender (Ancak, 1995; Orpinas et al., 1999). The other conditions that increase the risk of aggressive and bullying behaviors are: lack of social skills, hyperactivity, attention deficit, risk taking tendency, rigid beliefs and attitudes, and learning disabilities (Leone, Mayer, Malgren, & Misel, 2000).

Duncan (1999) investigated the relationship between parental attitudes and aggressiveness, and found that aggressive children and adolescents have parents who are generally less affectionate, excessively tolerant and physically and emotionally aggressive in their relationships with their children. While Hatunoglu (1994) found that adolescents who have authoritarian parents are more aggressive than those who have democratic and indifferent parents, Yavuzer (1996), in a research study on criminal children, found that a great majority of these children reported parental pressure and violence. Feshbac (1970) investigated the relationship between frustration, disappointment, and parental attitudes, and stated that rejective parental behaviors provoke frustration and aggressiveness (cited by Dogan, 2001). The family environment of a child and me parental attitudes towards the child have their effects on, and determine the psychosocial development, personality traits and behaviors of, the child (Baumrind, 1980; Pardeck & Pardeck, 1990).

In recent research studies, it appears that an important reason for observed aggressive behaviors in childhood and adolescence is peer pressure (Ryan, 2000; Santor, Messervey, & Kusumakar, 2000; Steinberg, 1999). During adolescence, one retires to a distance from parents and spends much more time with peers (Cook & Dayley, 2001; Helsen, Volleberg, & Meeus, 2000). The psychological needs of an adolescent in a group of peers to be accepted and appreciated as a part of that group are accompanied by peer pressure. Most of the time, adolescents are affected by peer groups and unknowingly begin to behave just like them (Santor et al. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

The Relationships between Aggressiveness, Peer Pressure and Parental Attitudes among Turkish High School Students
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.