Connecting Outcomes, Goals, and Objectives in Transition Planning

By Steere, Daniel E.; Cavaiuolo, Domenico | Teaching Exceptional Children, July/August 2002 | Go to article overview

Connecting Outcomes, Goals, and Objectives in Transition Planning


Steere, Daniel E., Cavaiuolo, Domenico, Teaching Exceptional Children


Lisa, who has mental retardation and requires limited supports, is in the lath grade. She wants to work in the community when she graduates, preferably in a supermarket. Lisa also wants to live in her own apartment; participate in community recreation activities, such as hiking and bird watching on weekends; and participate in an adult basketball league during the week. Lisa's parents support her desired aspiration, although they are understandably anxious about her future. Her curriculum consists of school-based and community-based instruction in skills directly relating to her desired postschool outcomes. Because Lisa understands that she is learning skills that she needs to fulfill her aspirations, she is highly motivated to work on these skills.

Jill, also in the loth grade, has specific learning disabilities that affect her abilities in reading, math, and overall organization. She is not sure what she wants to do when she grows up, but she is sure that she does not want to go to college. Her curriculum is primarily academic within the general high school curriculum, with necessary accommodations provided. Despite the concern and dedication of her teachers, Jill is discouraged and unmotivated. She sees little reason to stay in school and is in danger of dropping out.

These two students possess positive potential for future success, yet one appears to be embarking on a successful adult life, while the future for the other student seems bleak. The decisions and actions taken at this point in their lives will have an effect on them for years to come. This article describes the nature of the connection between goals and outcomes in transitions for young people, raises challenges for effective planning, and suggests strategies for enhancing the effectiveness of transition planning.

Transition planning teams often include special and general education teachers, guidance counselors, parents, vocational rehabilitation counselors, related services professionals-and the students themselves. Because self-determination is such an essential aspect of effective transition planning, we first discuss this as a framework for the remainder of our recommendations.

Overriding Role of Self-- Detemination

Self-determination is a combination of skills, knowledge, and attitudes (Field, Martin, Miller, Ward, & Wehmeyer, 1998; Wehmeyer, Agran, & Hughes, 1998). Wehmeyer and Schwartz (1998) described self-determined behavior as

* Choice-Making.

* Problem-solving.

* Goal-setting and attainment.

* Risk-taking and safety.

* Self-regulation.

* Self-advocacy or leadership.

* Self-awareness or self-knowledge.

Because effective planning for the future depends on the student's ability to clarify his or her wishes and aspirations, self-determination is essential to all facets of the planning process (Thoma, 1999). We find close relationships among skills associated with selfdetermination, desired postschool transition outcomes, and their associated annual goals and short-term objectives (see box, "Self-Determination Skills").

Self-determination skills are essential to clarifying desired postschool transition outcomes for the following reasons:

* To decide on careers to pursue, students must know what they like, are good at, and are interested in. This is true also for recreation and other nonvocational community activities.

* To choose among careers, colleges, recreation opportunities, or places in which to live, students must have choice-making and decision-making abilities. They must also have experience in making choices and decisions.

* In all aspects of planning for the future, students must be able to clearly and confidently articulate their choices and desires, even when significant others do not entirely agree.

Because of the critical importance of self-determination skills in the transition process, educators should incorporate specific application of these skills into the curriculum and should include the skills in annual goals and short-term objectives. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Connecting Outcomes, Goals, and Objectives in Transition Planning
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.