Performance Anxiety, Dysfunctional Attitudes and Gender in University Music Students

By Yondem, Zeynep Deniz | Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, November 30, 2007 | Go to article overview

Performance Anxiety, Dysfunctional Attitudes and Gender in University Music Students


Yondem, Zeynep Deniz, Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal


The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to investigate the relationships between anxiety and general dysfunctional attitudes, perfectionism, and the need for approval in the solo performance examination of Turkish university music students, and 2) to examine the effects of perfectionism, need for approval, and gender on anxiety. Fifty-four instrumental music students participated in this study. Research data were collected using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988) and the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (Weissman & Beck, 1978). The results revealed that there are significant positive correlations between anxiety and total score of dysfunctional attitudes, and the need for approval (p < .05). The ANOVA results also showed that while there was no main effect of perfectionism, need for approval and gender had significant effects (p < .05) on anxiety. However, interaction effects of perfectionism, need for approval, and gender on anxiety were not significant. Results are discussed in the context of related literature.

Keywords: anxiety, performance anxiety, music students, dysfunctional attitudes, perfectionism, need for approval.

Performance anxiety is a type of social anxiety (Kenny, 2005; Powell, 2004; Rodebaugh & Chambless, 2004) and is defined as an exaggerated fear that an individual has with regard to exhibition of performance in front of others (Wilson, 1999). Performance anxiety might occur in a range of anxiety-provoking situations including test taking, mathematics performance, public speaking, athletic activity, dance, acting, music performance (Kenny, 2006; Powell, 2004) as well as sexual performance (Bancroft et al., 2005; Birk, 2004; Perelman, 2003). Reviews of previous research have reflected that it is a widespread and problematic phenomenon for all types of performers, especially for musicians (Fehm & Schmidt, 2006; Kenny, 2006; Kenny, Davis, & Oates, 2004; Steptoe & Fidler, 1987; Wilson, 1999). For musicians, anxiety may cause some physical problems such as increased muscle tension, trembling (Davis, Meniti, & Richards, 2001), emotional problems such as lack of satisfaction with their performance caused by feelings of guilt and shame (Lee, 2002), and behavioral problems including forgetting notes or a part of a piece due to a temporary memory loss (Lee, 2002; Mishra, 2002; Powell, 2004) and vocal problems in singers (Davis et al.).

Some music educators state that anxiety in musicians generally results from insufficient preparation and suggest that practicing more would reduce anxiety. They also recommend that musicians who are anxious while performing music and have difficulties such as concentrating on the music, could take various steps to help themselves, such as taking a short nap before the performance (Davis, 1994; Nesmith, 2000). Davis states that these kinds of suggestions may be helpful for the low or moderately anxious performers, but musicians who experience severe anxiety need professional help.

Previous research has demonstrated that trait anxiety and gender were the best predictors of musical performance anxiety (Kenny, 2006). Some of the research findings showed that, for all age groups, musical performance anxiety has been observed two or three times more in female musicians than in males (Kenny, 2006; LeBlanc, Jin, Obert, & Siivola, 1997; Osborne & Franklin, 2002; Osborne, Kenny, & Holsomback, 2005; Rae & McCambridge, 2004; Ryan, 2004). In preperformance (Kokotsaki & Davidson, 2003) and evaluative situations anxiety is at its highest level in music performers (Craske & Craig, 1984, cited in Kenny, 2006; Fehm & Schmidt, 2006). In addition, catastrophic cognitions, irrational beliefs (Tobacky & Downs, 1986) and negative internal dialogs were the main cognitive characteristics of anxious performers (Davis, 1994; Fehm & Schmidt, 2006; Kenny, 2005; Osborne & Franklin, 2002; Rodebaugh & Chambless, 2004; Salmon & Meyer, 1992; Shultz, Heimberg, Rodebaugh, Schneider, Liebowitz, & Teich, 2006). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Performance Anxiety, Dysfunctional Attitudes and Gender in University Music Students
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.