The Adaptation and the Preliminary Validation of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire on Romanian Population; a Brief Research Report

By Dindelegan, Camelia | Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies, March 2008 | Go to article overview

The Adaptation and the Preliminary Validation of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire on Romanian Population; a Brief Research Report


Dindelegan, Camelia, Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies


Abstract

The article presents the Romanian norms for the Cognitive Style Questionnaire. The results are, in general consistent with those reported in earlier normative studies involving English-speaking samples. The sample of this study consisted of clinical and non-clinical subjects (N=736). The reliability of the new instrument is adequate, internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's Alpha) ranging from .68 to .84.

Keywords: cognitive style, depression, Romanian norms, Cognitive Style Questionnaire

Beck's theory of depression stems from the psychodynamic theory, but the author gradually became discontent with the psychoanalytical explanation of depression, which was understood not only as a form of repressing hostility, but also as a sum of negative thoughts in relation to the self, the world and the future. Studying George Kelly's theory of personal constructs, according to which people make sense of reality by elaborating, in the manner of scientists, hypotheses, which they put to test, and predictions, Beck was attracted by this point of view, using it in the elaboration of his own theory (Beck, 1985). Beck points out that depressive patients interpret reality in a distorted fashion, without relying on "testing hypotheses" or on "predictions" concerning reality (Beck, Steer, Beck, & Newman, 1993). Moreover, Beck advances the view that the depressive person's perception of his or her experience is influenced not only by the experienced reality, but also by emotions related to the experience (Beck, 1985). He suggests that depressives have a negative frame of the self, which causes automatic thoughts and the cognitive triad. He supports his ideas on the assumption of all cognitive models that cognitive processes mediate all behavioral or emotional responses, in other words, that "we feel what we think". Beck's cognitive theory of depression views it as "the absence of an understanding of life" rather than a biochemical imbalance or as a pathological state of mind, and "cognitive errors" are believed to result into negative attitudes and erroneous assumptions about the self, the future, and current experiences in the world (Beck, Kovacs, Weissman, 1975).

In relation to depressive pathology, Beck indicates a disturbance in the content of a person's thinking, this aspect being reflected in automatic thoughts, disturbances in information processing or cognitive distortions, all resulting from the cognitive schemata or the "pattern" that gives meaning to the world.

The following essential elements can be identified in Beck's theory:

- automatic thoughts, cognitive distortions and depressive cognitive patterns;

- the negative cognitive triad or the negative cognitive style.

The disturbance in the content of a person's thinking is related to aversive events, childhood traumas or stress, which influence the formation of the person's beliefs and attitudes, and make him/her vulnerable to depressive problems. The rigid and absolutistic beliefs will mediate the onset of problems, these beliefs becoming means whereby that person perceives the world. They will also contribute to the development of certain concepts related to what goes on in the world, the principles that govern the world and how events are going to develop. An example of belief that can lead to depression is "I can be happy only if people that are important for me appreciate me".

The cognitive triad is associated with certain patterns of thought, which makes the individual appreciate his or her situation, as well as his or her own personality, in negative terms.

The negative cognitive triad or the negative cognitive style involves a negative perception on the self, a negative view of current events in the world and a negative perspective on the future. The negative perception of the self refers to the self-understanding of the depressive person in terms of incapacities, absence of any personal merits, moral or physical deficiencies. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Adaptation and the Preliminary Validation of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire on Romanian Population; a Brief Research Report
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.