The Education of African American Students: The Struggle Continues

By Gardner, Ralph, III; Ford, Donna Y. et al. | The Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2001 | Go to article overview

The Education of African American Students: The Struggle Continues


Gardner, Ralph, III, Ford, Donna Y., Miranda, Antoinette Halsell, The Journal of Negro Education


Introduction and Overview

In the past 50 years, tremendous strides have been made in educating individuals with exceptionalities. Much of this progress would not have been possible without the landmark decision of Brown v. Board of Education (1954). "Separate but equal" schools for Whites and Blacks had been the legal tradition of the South and the defacto practice of the North, prior to 1954. Brown has had a profound effect on where and how children in America are educated. This Supreme Court case declared the practice of segregated schools unconstitutional. Since the Brown decision, there have been subsequent court decisions and laws enacted to protect the rights of all children, including those with disabilities, to an appropriate and free public education (Individual with Disabilities Act, 1974/1997).

The Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) has enabled millions of American children with disabilities (previously excluded from schools) to receive a free public education. Today, millions of children with disabilities not only attend their community schools, but significant numbers are being educated in classrooms with their nondisabled peers. Families of children with disabilities also have been given more authority to actively participate in their children's education. Further, society has benefited from the inclusion of many skilled persons with disabilities, who are now a contributing part of the workforce (Heward, 2000). These remarkable advances should be celebrated, but they are only part of the story.

Despite the important improvements in the educational opportunities for African American children and children with exceptionalities, all is not well, especially for poor urban African American children (Gardner & Talbert-Johnson, 2001). Segregated schools have been ruled illegal for almost 50 years, yet the school experiences for African Americans often differ dramatically from their European American peers. African American students are more likely to be placed in classes for persons that are mildly mentally retarded (MMR) or have serious emotional disturbances (SED), and less likely to be placed in gifted education classes than are European American students. These issues are compounded by a dwindling number of African American educators, who have traditionally played an important role in creating a positive learning environment for African American students. The diminishing number of African American educators may have a direct impact on the sensitivity of the school climate to African American children.

The reality is that an unequal education process continues in America, despite legal and moral mandates. This series of articles highlights some of the issues that plague the education community, particularly in regard to African American children and their families. Not only are issues raised, but solutions to the various concerns are promoted.

Cartledge, Sentelle, Loe, Lambert, and Reed describe an inner-city classroom for gifted students who were experiencing high levels of defiant and other inappropriate behaviors. Far too often, gifted African American children are overlooked and their educational needs are not met (Ford, 1996). The authors describe interventions that were successful in creating a positive academic environment, while decreasing inappropriate behaviors. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Education of African American Students: The Struggle Continues
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.