Violence by and against Women: A Comparative and Cross-National Analysis

By Kruttschnitt, Candace | Violence and Victims, January 1, 1993 | Go to article overview

Violence by and against Women: A Comparative and Cross-National Analysis


Kruttschnitt, Candace, Violence and Victims


Drawing from different kinds and levels of analysis, this article synthesizes current knowledge on women's violent offending and victimization cross-nationally. Individual-level data indicate characteristics and situations that put women at risk for violence within particular countries. Aggregate-level data concentrate on women's risks of violent encounters across nations and the societal-level factors that are associated with these risks. This multinational, multilevel approach reveals substantial gaps between our understanding of the types of encounters in which women are at greatest risk for violence and the societal correlates that predict gender distributions in violence across nations.

We have not yet seen a thorough cross-national synthesis of information on female involvement in violent crime across levels of analysis. To date, most cross-national analyses of female crime focus on offending and, by comparison to the work on males, have a very narrow theoretical scope. By contrast, this paper attempts a more comprehensive understanding of women's involvement in violent crime, using offending and victimization data at both the individual- and aggregate-levels. First, there is an examination of individual-level data to determine what factors are associated with women's risks of offending and victimization within specific societies. Second, aggregate-level data is examined to assess how women's risks of violent offending and victimization are distributed across societies and what societal factors are associated with high rates of female violence.1

There are, however, numerous problems inherent in this undertaking. Estimating the relative percentage of violent female offenders and victims among different nations is impossible given both the limitations of large-scale cross-national surveys of crime and the lack of systematic research on women and crime in most nations. The major sources of cross-national data on violent female offending (International Criminal Police Organization, United Nations, Comparative Crime File Data) and victimization (World Health Organization, International Crime Survey) do provide information on the distribution of female involvement in violent crime. Nevertheless, as explicated by Gartner (1993), these surveys are hampered by issues of the reliability and validity of their measures of interpersonal violence which have yet to be systematically estimated or corrected. These large-scale cross-national datasets are best utilized for aggregate descriptive or analytic analyses of female involvement in violent crime.

At the national-level, systematic research on women offenders can be found in only a few developed nations (United States, Canada, selected European nations, and Australia). More generally, extant analyses of female violence vary tremendously in the years they encompass, the geographic regions they cover, the offenses they include, and the data sources they draw upon. For example, analyses include some countries that compile statistical data only on sentenced women or women in correctional facilities whereas others analyze only court records or arrest data. Even when the data sources are similar, the methods used to calculate crime rates vary across studies. Analyses of violent female victimizations are similarly limited and, increasingly, dominated by descriptive studies of domestic violence. Taken together, these data deficiencies constrain both our understanding of the behavioral trends in violent female offending and victimization and our ability to evaluate explanations for any observed trends.

Other limitations of available data and existing research shape the conclusions of this review. First, female involvement in acts of serious interpersonal violence (homicide, assault, robbery, rape) is the primary focus of this article. Analyses are excluded that confound property and violent crimes (e. g., combining burglary and robbery into one offense category) or report information only on the total female crime rate. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Violence by and against Women: A Comparative and Cross-National Analysis
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.