The Use of Self-Efficacy Enhancing Methods in Diabetes Education in the Netherlands

By Berg, Dorine J. E. M. Koopman-van den Ms, Rn; Bijl, Jaap J. van der PhD, Rn | Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice, January 1, 2001 | Go to article overview

The Use of Self-Efficacy Enhancing Methods in Diabetes Education in the Netherlands


Berg, Dorine J. E. M. Koopman-van den Ms, Rn, Bijl, Jaap J. van der PhD, Rn, Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice


According to the social cognitive theory of Bandura, self-efficacy predicts behavorial change. Bandura notes that self-efficacy is based on four major sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion and self-evaluation. This exploratory study examined the use of these four sources of information by Dutch nurse diabetes educators to enhance self-efficacy among people with diabetes mellitus. A survey questionnaire was sent to all Dutch nurse members of the European Association of Diabetes Educators (BADE) asking about the use of self-efficacy-enhancing methods, and four different educational programs were observed. Survey respondents said that performance accomplishments and verbal persuasion were often used, vicarious experience was hardly ever used, and the use of self-evaluation varied. The observations gave a different picture: only verbal persuasion was observed often; the other three sources were hardly ever used. Clearly, self-efficacyenhancing educational methods are not systematically used in the Netherlands and there is little variety in the methods used. More varied methods of enhancing self-efficacy need to be developed and implemented in diabetes education programs.

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by abnormalities in glucose metabolism resulting from deficiencies in insulin production, utilization or both, which lead to abnormally high serum glucose levels (van Ballegooie & Heine, 1991). In 1993 the prevalence of diabetes in persons above the age of 30 years was estimated at 2.7% of the Dutch population on the basis of cases reported by general practitioners and at 3.2% based on self-reported cases in surveys. The prevalence increases by 7.1 % per life-year for men and by 7.7% for women. The estimated number of people with diabetes in the Netherlands in 1993 ranged between 235,000 and 285,000 (Baan, Bonneux, Ruwaard, & Feskens, 1998), out of a total population of 15 million people. Research done in America (Harris, Hadden, Knowler, & Bennett, 1987) and in the Netherlands (Baan et al., 1998; Grootenhuis, 1994) indicates that only half of all patients with diabetes are registered as such, and systematic screening would increase the prevalence figure 1.5 to 2 times.

The management of diabetes requires an individual to possess a basic knowledge of the disease and the skills necessary to manage the condition. The consequences of poor control include significant micro vascular and macrovascular complications, with the potential for life-altering outcomes. The required skills include management of diet, exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose levels, medication administration, hygiene and avoidance of complications. Traditional diabetic education has been designed to improve knowledge, attitudes and skills and thus to improve compliance with treatment advice. Studies have shown that knowledge alone, however, does not predict individuals' capabilities to incorporate self-management behaviors into their activities of daily living (Glasgow & Osteen, 1992; Nagasawa, Smith, Barnes, & Fincham, 1990). Coping skills are also necessary to manage the day-to-day regimen of diabetes (Rubin, Peyrot, & Saudek, 1993).

SELF-EFFICACY IN DIABETES EDUCATION

Self-efficacy has been shown to be important in the self-management of diabetes (Johnson, 1996). International studies of self-efficacy enhancing programs used in diabetes education and all national intervention studies in diabetes education were identified through the literature. Three American studies were found and six studies in the Netherlands (van den Berg, 1999). All nine studies gave a description of the target population, although not all in detail. Four programs focused on patients with type 2 diabetes, four on patients with type 1 diabetes, and one program on a group of patients including both types of diabetes. The duration of the programs varied between 4 x 3 hours (de Weerdt, Visser, Kok, & van der Veen, 1989) and a 5-day 37-hour extramural program (Rubin, Peyrot, & Saudek, 1993). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

The Use of Self-Efficacy Enhancing Methods in Diabetes Education in the Netherlands
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.