Individual Psychology and Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Cognitive Therapy Perspective

By Freeman, Arthur; Urschel, June | Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, January 1, 1997 | Go to article overview

Individual Psychology and Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Cognitive Therapy Perspective


Freeman, Arthur, Urschel, June, Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy


Adler's Individual Psychology (IP) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (BT) have many common precepts and suppositions. This paper delineates many of these commonalities and suggests areas in which the therapists may learn from each other.

In the last several years CBT has attracted increasing interest from mental health professionals from around the world. The "cognitive revolution" discussed by Mahoney (1974) has matured so that the Cognitive Behavior Therapies have moved from an area of fringe interest to the forefront of professional interest. Cognitive Therapy has become a meeting ground for therapists from diverse theoretical and philosophical positions ranging from the behavioral to the psychoanalytic. Psychodynamic therapists find in CBT a dynamic core that involves working to alter basic schemes. Adlerian therapists find in CBT a short-term, active, directive, collaborative, psychoeducational model of psychotherapy. Fergus & Shulman (1979), and Shulman (1985) state that as Adler developed his theories of dysfunction and therapy, he introduced, ". . .a number of cognitive concepts" Placing Adler, ". . .securely among the cognitive personality theorists and cognitive therapists." (p. 244).

It is interesting to present Adlerian concepts to psychology students or to mental health professionals who have been trained in a cognitive behavior therapy model. The responses can be categorized into three main types. The first type of responses involves extensive note taking. To this group, the material is new, interesting, useful, and relevant.

The second type of response is manifested by those who sit back and simply nod. After all, these ideas make sense and appear to be consistent with CBT. What's new?

A third response involves a mild protest. After all, who is this Adler fellow to co-opt so many of the CBT ideas?

Kurt Adler (1983, personal communication) called Cognitive Therapy, "a most reasonable extension of my father's work." Eva Driekurs Ferguson, a well-known, individual psychologist, whose father Rudolf Driekurs was a coworker with Alfred Adler and one of the major theoreticians and teachers in Individual Psychology (IP), in commenting on a presentation of the basic theory and techniques of Cognitive Therapy stated,". . .nothing (was said) with which my father would disagree" (1990).

From the CBT side, Beck, Rush, Shaw, and Emery (1979), Ellis (1985, 1989) and Freeman, Pretzer, Fleming, & Simon (1990) all credit their CBT work to an early grounding in Individual Psychology. Dowd and Kelly (1980) in their seminal paper conclude, "Perhaps Cognitive-Behavioral Psychology's strong array of treatment and research strategies could be joined with the theoretical concepts of Adlerian Psychology to the benefit of both of these systems" (P. 134).

We have three goals in this paper. First we will describe and discuss the similarities and differences in the conceptualization, theory, and practices between Cognitive Therapy and Individual Psychology. Our second goal is to describe and discuss the importance of an Individual Psychology approach to Cognitive Therapists and how Cognitive Therapists can profit from a grounding in Individual Psychology. Third, we will identify the basic CBT treatment focus and techniques that we believe to be of value to IP.

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN COGNITIVE THERAPY AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY

Although often grouped among psychoanalysts, Adler found purely motivational theories of behavior insufficient to explain human behavior. His work focused on understanding the beliefs and convictions that a person developed. These beliefs were part of what became the lifestyle. The apperceptive schema or personal rules of life direct the individual's movement through life. In considering the structure of a personality, the chief difficulty is that its unity, its particular style of life and goal, is not built upon objective reality, but upon the subjective view the individual takes of the facts of life (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956, p. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Individual Psychology and Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Cognitive Therapy Perspective
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.