Status of Public Services in Karnataka - a Comparative District Level Analysis
Benni, Basavaraj S., Journal of Services Research
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Today, in the 21st century there is no denying the fact that globally there is a development 'gap' not only between nations but within them, as well as within the sub-regions and this gap varies among regions. Very few studies in India had highlighted the persistent 'development gap in public services' within the country. At the National Development Council meeting in New Delhi the Prime Minster of India, Shri Manmohan Singh regretted that "the rural-urban divide and the gender divide do not appear to be reducing in any significant manner" and this seems to be the challenge before development economists in India.
Karnataka is no exception to this universally observed and accepted reality. No doubt Karnataka is one of the most developed states of India. Information technology is now the most established sector in the state. However even Information technology and other public services are not evenly spread throughout the state and are observed to cause a development 'gap in public services' within the state, resulting also in a conspicuous business environment, much to the disadvantage of the rural area.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The Study has the following objectives:
* To quantify provision of public service disparity among the districts of Karnataka state.
* To rank the districts on the bases of composite development index of public services.
* To know the status of development among the North and South districts of Karnataka state.
This section consist the following aspects:
Selection of the Study Area
The disparities in public services development at a disaggregated level, for instance district level, have been least studied. District level regional public services imbalance and disparity has resulted into demand for separate state in the Karnataka state. To accomplish such an exercise the information on various development indicators of public services is best available at the district level. In view of this, the districts of Karnataka state were chosen as the units purposively for analysis in this investigation.
Public Service Development Indicators
There is no unanimity regarding the methodologies used to capture the public services development or under development in the literature. In this paper, the level of overall public services development was captured through three facets, namely 'Infrastructure Indicators' 'Health Indicators' and 'Education Indicators' using as many as twenty five indicators.
Source of Data
The required data were collected from secondary sources such as Census of India, Government of India, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Karnataka which involves twenty seven districts and twenty five indicators. The data reference year was 2000-2001.
Methods of Analysis and Statistical Tools
Morris, and Liser, (1977) provided procedure for construction and use of development index, and used by Mukherjee, (1980). In this paper, researcher had employed same methodology which is as follows:
Let X^sub id^ represent the size or the of the i-th development indicator of public service in the d-th district of state, (I = 1, 2,........m; d = 1, 2, .....n, say). Let us write
Where, Min^sub d^ X^sub id^ and Max^sub d^ X^sub id^ are, respectively, the minimum and maX^sub im^um of (X^sub i1^, X^sub i2^, ............. X^sub im^). If however, X^sub i^ is negatively associated with the status of public service development in the state, equation no. 1 can be written as:
Obviously, the scaled values, Y^sub id^, vary from zero to one. From the matrix of scaled values, Y = ((Y^sub id^)), we may construct for the status or level of public service development for the different district of the Karnataka state as follows:
Y^sub d^=W^sub 1^Y^sub 1d^+W^sub 2^Y^sub 2d^+W^sub 3^Y^sub 3d^+.... . …