Testing Nonlinear Logit Models of Performance Effectiveness Ratings: Cooperative Extension and Organic Farmers

By Lohr, Luanne; Park, Timothy A. | Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, August 2008 | Go to article overview

Testing Nonlinear Logit Models of Performance Effectiveness Ratings: Cooperative Extension and Organic Farmers


Lohr, Luanne, Park, Timothy A., Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics


Survey evidence from U.S. organic farmers is evaluated to identify the factors influencing effectiveness ratings of cooperative extension advisors by organic farmers. A nonlinear logit model is specified for the ratings provided by organic producers, and critical demographic and management factors that influence the ratings are identified. The impact of the organic farmers' status in transitioning to organic production is highlighted. The results indicate that part-time, newer adopters of organic farming methods are more likely to rate extension service providers as effective providers of information. Scenarios to predict extension effectiveness when interacting with specific groups of organic farmers are developed.

Key Words: cooperative extension, nonlinear logit model, organic fanning, performance ratings

JEL Classifications: C25, Q16, Q01

The organic food market, one of the most rapidly expanding food segments, faces significant challenges including new pest management and soil fertility problems, rapid changes in industry structure associated with the entry of large-scale corporate producers and processors in competition with small family farms, and an evolving regulatory environment associated with U.S. certification programs. Kotcon and Thilmany documented emerging support for organic systems with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), indicating recognition throughout the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) of the need for, and opportunities in, organic systems research.

Cooperative extension advisors will play a critical role in assisting organic farmers. The National Research Council report on publicly funded agricultural research noted that the extension service's primary role has been to communicate research results to farmers and other citizens through adult education, with an increasing emphasis on broader research including sustainable production systems, environmental issues, and rural development. Agricultural extension program leaders are acutely aware of the difficulties and limitations of the land grant system in adapting to changes in the agricultural and rural economy. Extension leaders face pressure to extend their roles in serving both farm and nonfarm clients while adapting to increasing competitive pressures from private advisors and consultants.

Proponents of organic production and marketing methods have voiced concerns about the performance of cooperative extension in promoting this growing market segment. In a nationwide survey of U.S. organic producers by the Organic Farming Research Foundation (OFRF), organic farmers were asked to indicate the degree to which 10 specified constraints inhibited their farm operations, using a scale from 1 to 5 (where 5 represents a "serious constraint or problem"). The percentage of fanners who rated extension advisors as critical constraints on organic production was uniformly high across all geographic regions. Over 41% of farmers nationwide identified "uncooperative or uninformed extension agents" as a significant constraint.

These survey results stand in sharp contrast with previous success stories documenting the efficacy of agricultural extension in promoting innovative programs in sustainable agriculture. Bhattacharyya et al. demonstrated that cooperative extension programs enhanced the rate of adoption of the Tritrichomonas foetus vaccine designed to reduce reproductive failure of cows. Postlewait, Parker, and Zilberman noted that extension advisors were the main promoters of integrated pest management and sustainable agriculture programs, and were especially effective in influencing adoption at the early stages before the tangible program benefits in terms of sellable commodities and products were documented.

Performance evaluation is an important component in improving and targeting the timely delivery of extension programs and technical information. Hanson confirmed that an important standard for evaluating excellence in extension programming is meeting the needs of the projected audience. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Testing Nonlinear Logit Models of Performance Effectiveness Ratings: Cooperative Extension and Organic Farmers
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.