Regional Difference in Distribution of China's Colleges and Universities and Its Impact on the Equality in Access to Higher Education/DIFFERENCE REGIONALE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES INSTITUTS ET UNIVERSITES DE CHINE ET SON IMPACT SUR L'EGALITE DE L'ACCES A L'EDUCATION SUPERIEURE

By Hongmin, Shen | Canadian Social Science, January 1, 2007 | Go to article overview

Regional Difference in Distribution of China's Colleges and Universities and Its Impact on the Equality in Access to Higher Education/DIFFERENCE REGIONALE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES INSTITUTS ET UNIVERSITES DE CHINE ET SON IMPACT SUR L'EGALITE DE L'ACCES A L'EDUCATION SUPERIEURE


Hongmin, Shen, Canadian Social Science


Abstract:

The inequality in higher education recruitment chances among various regions in China has been a much talked about subject and has triggered a number of discussions in recent years. Yet the systematic empirical study on this topic has not been carried out. This paper is an empirical effort to study the nature and reasons of inequality in access to higher education in China. The key questions asked in this study are, What is the impact of the imbalance in the regional distribution of higher education institutions on equal educational opportunities for students? And How has the regional distribution of higher education institutions formed and evolved in China? This paper traces back the historical process for the formation of regional distribution pattern of China's higher education institutions, and through statistical analysis, discusses the influence of the imbalance in regional distribution of higher education institutions on students' chances for higher education.

The authors' main findings are that, (1) The imbalanced regional distribution pattern of China's higher education institutions was mainly formed during the readjustment of departments and colleges in 1950s. Later, although the overall number of colleges and universities during the periods of Great Leap Forward (1958-1960) and the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) fluctuated, the basic distribution pattern had not changed too much until 1990s. (2) There are two main reasons for the inequality in the chances for the students to be recruited by colleges and universities among different regions in China. One is the imbalance in regional distribution of colleges and universities, the other is the enrolment system with the planned number of students to be enrolled being based on provinces. The latter, in an institutionalized way, transforms the imbalance in regional distribution of colleges and universities into the difference in recruitment mark lines in different regions, and thus leads to the inequality in chances for being recruited by colleges and universities.

Key words: China's higher education, Inequality in access to higher education, imbalanced regional distribution.

Résumé: L'inégalité de chances dans le recrutement de l'éducation supérieure parmi les différentes régions en Chine a été un sujet beaucoup parlé et a provoqué de nombreuses discussions dans les dernières années. Mais une étude empirique et systématique sur ce problème n'a pas encore été entreprise. Cet article est un effort empirique pour étudier la nature et les raisons de l'inégalité de l'accès à l'éducation supérieure en Chine. Les questions clefs posées dans cette étude sont comme suite : quel est l'impact du déséquilibre de la distribution régionale des institutions d'enseignement supérieur sur les opportunités éducatives des élèves? Comment la distribution régionale des institutions d'enseignement supérieur a formé et évolu en Chine? Cet article décrit le processus historique de la formation du modèle de la distribution régionale des institutions supérieures de Chine, et discute, par l'analyse statistique, les influences du déséquilibre dans la distribution régionale des institutions d'enseignement supérieur sur les chances des élèves pour l'éducation supérieure.

Les conclusions principales que l'auteur a tirées sont: (1) le modèle de la distribution régionale déséquilibrée des institutions d'enseignement supérieur a été formé pendant le rajustement de départements des instituts et universités dans les années 1950. Après, bien que le total des instituts et universités durant la période du Grand Bond en avant (1958-1960) et la Révolution culturelle (1966-1976) ait fluctué, le modèle de distribution fondamental n'a pas beaucoup changé avant les années 1990. (2) Il y a deux raisons pour expliquer l'inégalité des chances pour les élèves d'être admis par les instituts ou universités parmi les diverses régions chinoises. L'une est le déséquilibre de la distribution régionale des institutions ; l'autre est que le système de recrutement qui définit le nombre des étudiants recrutés selon les provinces. …

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Regional Difference in Distribution of China's Colleges and Universities and Its Impact on the Equality in Access to Higher Education/DIFFERENCE REGIONALE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES INSTITUTS ET UNIVERSITES DE CHINE ET SON IMPACT SUR L'EGALITE DE L'ACCES A L'EDUCATION SUPERIEURE
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