Rise and Fall of PRI and Its Inspirations/PROSPÉRITÉ ET DECADENCE DE PRI ET SON INSPIRATIONS
Rong, Tan, Canadian Social Science
PRI, which was in power for 71 years, had been the most powerful party in Mexico. However, it was defeated by AC, the union of PAN and PVEM, in 2000 election. The firm position of a party in power is based on its social foundation that relies on its abilities to mobilize and control over society. The rising and declining experiences of PRI show that the party in power must have the abilities of forming and strengthening ideological condensation, transforming system, adjusting policy as well as coordinating and condensing the varied interests of society, then can it make itself remain invincible.
Key words: PRI, ideological condensation, transforming system, policy ability,coordinating interests
Résumé: PRI, qui a été au pouvoir pendant 71 ans, a été le plus puissant parti au Mexique. Toutefois, il a été défait par AC, l'union de PAN et PVEM, dans l'élection en 2000. Que la position solide d'un parti au pouvoir est basée sur sa fondation sociale repose sur ses capacités à mobiliser et à contrôler la société. Les expériences de prospérité et decadence de PRI montrent que le parti au pouvoir doit avoir la capacité de former et renforcer la condensation idéologique, de transformer le système, d'adapter la politique ainsi que de coordiner et condenser de divers intérêts de la société, ainsi peut-il se faire rester invincible.
Mots-Clés: PRI, condensation idéologique, transformer le système, capacité politique, coordiner les intérêts
Continuously holding power for 71 years from March 1929 to December 2000, PRI Once was the most powerful party in Mexico. In 1980s, it even had a party membership of 13 million2 and therefore became the most populated party and the one remained in power for the longest period of time in Latin America.
Such was a miracle in a political arena with numerous opposition parties, heating competitions and frequently reshuffles of power like Latin America that a party had been able to steadily stay in power for such a long time. However, in the July 2000 election of Mexico, PRI candidate Labastida lost toFox, candidate of AC, the Union of PAN and PVEM, which finished the 70 years' regime of PRI and brought the country into the first period that an opposition party governs in modern Mexican history.
The result of the election astonished the whole world. Why did a party as powerful as PRI degenerate from rising to fall, from a party supported so heartedly and extensively by its people to one complained all over the country and was eventually extricated from its position? This essay attempts to explore this question from the perspectives of ideological condensation, transforming system, policy ability and aggregation of interests, and seeks to find valuable enlightenment.
1. THE FACTOR OF IDEOLOGICAL CONDENSATION
PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) was the outcome of the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1917. It was formed in 1929 as Revolutionary National Party (Spanish: "Partido Nacional Revolucionario" or PNR). The party, reorganized for several times, changed its name to its current name Partido Revolucionario Institucional in 1946. At the time PNR was founded, Mexico was under a period when political turbulence and disruption was exacerbated by countless caudillos. The situation was deteriorated further by sharp social conflicts, slow economic development, fewer export increase rate, decreasing employment rate, falling proportion of industrial labor, declining payment to workers and increasing proportion of agricultural labor. Facing these contradictions together with political and social problems, PNR drew a conclusion out of years experience: Western theories could not meet the actual need of Mexico, and thereby could not help to solve those problems in reality. Mexicans could only depend on themselves to search for a path suitable to their own development. PRI was established under such guidelines.
Since its founding, PRI was a party "paid special attention to ideological struggle"3. …