China's Contemporary Trends of Trade in Educational Services and It's Countermeasures under the Opening Environment/TENDANCES DU SECTEUR DE SERVICE EDUCATIF DE LA CHINE ET SES CONTRE-MESURES DANS UN ENVIRONNEMENT OUVERT
Aijuan, Chen, Min, Yi, Canadian Social Science
While China is opening its educational market to the outside world, the main international trends of trade in educational services are: the developed countries are still the chief exporters while the developing countries are increasing their involvement; aside from the overseas consumption there is also remarkable development in other forms of educational service trade. This text analyzes the main trends of China's educational service trade under the opening environment, which include: there is a progressively increasing population of overseas students; the number of overseas students whose schooling is paid by themselves is increasing, so is the returning rate; China becomes more and more attractive to foreign students by its unique advantages; Educational mid-organizations have been developing rapidly and other forms of educational service trade have also been experiencing a considerable development. To deal with these trends, we may take several measures as follows under the opening environment: to carry out researches into the law of development of trade in educational services; to standardize the domestic intermediary market; to prefect relevant laws and regulations.
Key words: trade in educational services/educational service trade, trend, countermeasure
Résumé: Lors de l'ouverture du marché éducatif de la Chine vers l'extérieur, les tendances principales du secteur de service éducatif sont : les pays développés restent encore les exportateurs essentiels alors que les pays en développement augmentent leur part. En plus de la consommation étrangère il y a encore un développement remarquable sous d'autres formes du service éduatif. Cet article analyse les principales tendances du secteur de service éducatif de la Chine dans un environnement ouvert, qui englobent : la population des étudiants étrangers s'agrandit progressivement ; le nombre des étudiants étrangers dont la scolarité est à leur charge augmente, d'où le taux de retour ; la Chine devient de plus en plus attractive pour les étudants étrangers grâce à ses avantages uniques ; les intermédiaires éducatifs se développent rapidement et d'autres formes du service éducatif connaissent aussi un développement considérable. Face à ces tendances, on peut prendre dans un environnement ouvert des mesures comme suite : effectuer des recherches sur la loi de développement sectoriel du service éducatif, standardiser le marché intermédiaire domestique, perfectionner les lois et régulations concernées.
Mots-Clés: secteur du service éducatif, tendance, contre-mesure
The GATS (the General Agreement on Trade in Services)formulated in the series of multilateral trade negotiations of Uruguay Round in the end of 1994 has officially brought service trade into the scope of jurisdiction of the WTO. According to the stipulations under GATS, except for the teaching activities that are entirely subsidized by each member country's government, like the military colleges and universities, any teaching activity that collects tuitions and carries commercial nature belongs to educational services, especially the higher education, adult education, vocational and technical training. And any member country of WTO can participate in the competition for educational services. As a member of the WTO, China will open its educational market step by step, which is bound to bring certain opportunities and challenges to the nation's education. At present, every country the world over attaches great importance to the development of trade in educational services, and "boundless education" is increasingly prevailing across the globe. In order to adapt our country's education to this macro-environment, we must get a more accurate understanding of the global and domestic trends in educational service trade.
1. GLOBAL TRENDS OF TRADE IN EDUCATIONAL SERVICES
Since the 1990s, international trade in the service sector, particularly the trade in educational services, has gained pace in its development, and the international and inter-regional trade in educational services mainly out of economic purposes has become an important component of international trade. …