The Effects of Privatization of Alcohol Sales in Alberta on Suicide Mortality Rates

By Zalcman, Rosely Flam; Mann, Robert E. | Contemporary Drug Problems, December 1, 2007 | Go to article overview

The Effects of Privatization of Alcohol Sales in Alberta on Suicide Mortality Rates


Zalcman, Rosely Flam, Mann, Robert E., Contemporary Drug Problems


Many Western jurisdictions had publicly controlled alcohol retail systems in the middle portion of the 20th century. However, by the latter part of the century many were considering moving away from public control of alcohol retailing to private control, while other jurisdictions privatized some or all of the alcohol retailing system (Her, Giesbrecht, Room & Rehm 1998; Mann, Rehm, Giesbrecht et al. 2005). Proponents of privatization point to the potential economic benefits that may occur. These include funds received from the sale of previously state-owned retail outlets, the sale of licences to sell alcohol and the cost savings resulting from the reduction in staff and facilities required for alcohol sales (Beverage Alcohol System Review Panel [BASRP] 2005). However, others point to the likely impact of privatization of alcohol sales on consumption and health problems (e.g., Mann, Rehm et al. 2005). One analysis in Ontario estimated that alcohol consumption would increase by between 10% and 20% if Ontario's government-controlled alcohol retail system were fully privatized (Her et al. 1998). Studies of privatization of sales of alcoholic beverages in the United States indicate that availability and consumption increased; Wagenaar & Holder (1995), in a review of the American literature, found increases in consumption ranging between 13% and 150%. Increasing alcohol consumption can be expected to increase alcoholrelated morbidity and mortality (Bruun, Edwards, Lumio, Mäkelä, Pan, Popham et al. 1975; Room, Babor & Rehm 2005), and government control of retail sales of alcohol has been recommended as a key public health measure to control alcohol-related damage in society (Babor, Caetano, Casswell, Edwards, Giesbrecht, Graham et al. 2003).

In the Canadian experience, moving from public to private control of retail outlets has occurred in the provinces of Alberta and Quebec (Demers & Fournier 2006; MacKenzie & Giesbrecht 2006), and in Ontario and other provinces has been proposed on several occasions (Giesbrecht, Stoduto & Kavanagh 2006). In Alberta and Quebec the numbers of alcohol outlets increased substantially (Her et al. 1998). In Quebec some divergence in evidence on consumption changes has been seen (Her et al. 1998), with the most recent analyses finding evidence for modest but significant increases in some forms of consumption (Trolldal 2005b). In Alberta evidence has been found for a significant increase in consumption of spirits, particularly at a time when consumption was decreasing in other parts of the country (Flanagan 2003; Trolldal 2005a). As well, government tax levels have been reduced several times since demonopolization of retail outlets, and this has been attributed to pressure from the alcohol retailers (Flanagan 2003).

In their review of the literature on privatization of alcohol sales, Her, Giesbrecht, Room & Rehm (1999) noted that "there is relatively little evidence on the effects of demonopolization, or privatization, directly on alcohol-related harms" (p. 1135), since the topic of harm was not a common focus of these studies. There is some evidence that privatization in Alberta has been associated with an increase in criminal offenses, such as liquor store break-ins and more relaxed enforcement of laws pertaining to underage purchases (Laxer, Green, Harrington & New 1994). Furthermore, within Canada, Alberta continues to have some of the highest rates of alcohol-related problems such as drunk-driving fatalities (Mayhew, Brown & Simpson 2002). Trolldal (2005b) found no evidence for an impact of privatization on drinking-driving fatality rates in Alberta. Since several initiatives to reduce drinking-driving rates were introduced over the same period in Alberta specifically, and in Canada in general (e.g., Voas, Marques, Tippetts & Beirness 1999), any effects of privatization on this measure could have been masked. Other alcohol-related causes of death, such as liver cirrhosis, are chronic conditions resulting from the accumulation of alcohol-related damage over many years (Mann, Smart & Govoni 2003). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

The Effects of Privatization of Alcohol Sales in Alberta on Suicide Mortality Rates
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.