School Psychologists as Instructional Consultants in a Response-to-Intervention Model

By Powers, Kristin; Hagans, Kristi et al. | The California School Psychologist, January 1, 2008 | Go to article overview

School Psychologists as Instructional Consultants in a Response-to-Intervention Model


Powers, Kristin, Hagans, Kristi, Busse, R. T., The California School Psychologist


The 2004 authorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act affords an opportunity to shift the classification of Learning Disabilities (LD) from a "refer-test-place" to a Response-to-intervention (RtI) service delivery model. As a result, there are implications for the professional activities of school psychologists. School psychologists, who historically devoted much of their time to testing struggling learners for learning disabilities, will need to engage in a different type of practice, specifically providing instructional consultation in a tiered assessment and intervention model. This article describes instructional consultation skills and knowledge school psychologists must possess to promote the learning outcomes of students with achievement deficits, including students with disabilities. Survey data collected from 249 California school psychologist practitioners highlight the need to modify school psychology pre-service training and on-going professional development to enable school psychologists to become effective instructional consultants.

KEYWORDS: Response to Intervention; RtI; Instructional Consultation; School Psychology Service Delivery.

The Response-to-intervention (RtI) Zeitgeist emerged with the 2004 re -authorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, which provided states the option of determining whether a "child responds to scientific, research -based intervention" for identifying underachieving students with specific learning disabilities (SLD; IDEIA, 2004). SLD eligibility under RtI is determined when a child's academic performance fails to improve even when increasingly intensive, empirically supported interventions have been implemented (Hagans-Murillo, 2005; see Jimerson, Burns, & Van D er Hey den, 2007 for a review of contemporary scholarship related to RtI). The reauthorization specifically requires a data-based decisionmaking process for identifying and serving students who are referred for learning difficulties, including students who are English Language Learners (ELLs; IDEIA, 2004). One of the greatest challenges currently facing the field of special education and related services is training personnel to effectively meet these new requirements for identifying children with LD using a RtI model (Canter, 2006; Graden, 2004; Kratochwill, Volpiansky, Clements, & Ball, 2007; NJCLD, 2005).

Most RtI service delivery models are based on three tiers of intervention with a student progressing from one tier to the next if quality interventions at each level fail to stem the student's persistent or worsening academic skill deficits (Fuchs et al., 2008). RtI is grounded in the provision of instructional consultation at each level of service, and represents a major paradigm shift from the traditional psychometric activities associated with a "refer-test-place" model (see Table 1). Instructional consultation and problem-solving models upon which RtI are based have been researched (e.g., Bergan & Kratochwill, 1990; Jimerson, Burns, & VanDerHeyden, 2007; Rosenfield, 2002) and used in practice for many years in states such as Iowa (Ikeda, Rahn- Blake slee, Niebling, Gustafs on, Allison, & Stumme, 2007), Minnesota (M ars ton, Lau, & Muyskens, 2007), and Illinois (Peterson, Passe, Shinn, & Swerdlik, 2007). Despite being practiced and researched, RtI remains relatively new to many school psychologists; as such their knowledge and ability to support empirically based instruction and monitor a child's response to that instruction may be limited. However, school psychologists' knowledge of assessment and access to multiple instructional contexts makes them ideal candidates to assume the role of instructional consultant. In short, to move from a refer-test-place model to a RtI model of service delivery, school psychologists must move from providing primarily psychometric services to delivering consultation services within a tiered instructional model. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

School Psychologists as Instructional Consultants in a Response-to-Intervention Model
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.