The Contents of Perceptual Hypotheses: Evidence from Rapid Resumption of Interrupted Visual Search

By Jungé, Justin A.; Brady, Timothy F. et al. | Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, May 2009 | Go to article overview

The Contents of Perceptual Hypotheses: Evidence from Rapid Resumption of Interrupted Visual Search


Jungé, Justin A., Brady, Timothy F., Chun, Marvin M., Attention, Perception and Psychophysics


Observers can resume a previously interrupted visual search trial significantly more quickly than they can start a new search trial (Lleras, Rensink, & Enns, 2005). This rapid resumption of search is possible because evidence accumulated during the previous exposure, a perceptual hypothesis, can carry over to a subsequent presentation. We present four interrupted visual search experiments in which the content of the perceptual hypotheses used during visual search trials was characterized. These experiments suggest that prior to explicit target identification, observers have accumulated evidence about the locations, but not the identities, of local, task-relevant distractors, as well as preliminary evidence for the identity of the target. Our results characterize the content of perceptual search hypotheses and highlight the utility of interrupted search for studying online search processing prior to target identification.

Locating objects in the local environment is essential for successful navigation in a complex world, and visual search can operate across a wide variety of environmental conditions and over a remarkable repertoire of useful feature combinations. The central functionality of visual search has attracted considerable empirical investigation and theoretical consideration over the past several decades. Search experiments typically ask participants to locate and respond to a predefined target object in a field of distractors. Designs of this type are well suited for exploring the nature of attentional selection and the time course of processing a variety of simple and complex stimuli. Much of what is known today about visual search has been deduced from search slopes. By adding more distractors to a display containing a single target and observing the corresponding increase in average response time (RT), it is possible to infer the average amount of processing time for each additional distractor. Prominent early theories of attention and visual search made extensive use of evidence from search slopes (e.g., Duncan & Humphreys, 1989; Treisman & Gelade, 1980). However, there remain important questions about search processing that may not be readily addressed using search slopes alone. All processing prior to target identification and response gets lumped under the same RT in traditional studies of visual search, but new methods and analyses can provide a window into search processing prior to target detection. The phenomenon of rapid resumption (Lleras, Rensink, & Enns, 2005)-to be discussed at length below-may provide one such source of converging evidence and additional inference.

Visual search requires both attentional selection and several types of memory (Kristjánsson, 2000; Peterson, Kramer, Wang, Irwin, & McCarley, 2001; Shore & Klein, 2000; Woodman & Chun, 2006). It has been suggested that in order to perform typical search tasks, a target template must be held in working memory (Duncan & Humphreys, 1989). In fact, top-down influences on search are essential in most models of visual search. This has led researchers to investigate the possibility of shared resources between visual search and working memory tasks, using dual-task designs. Loading executive working memory impairs visual search efficiency (Han & Kim, 2004), as does loading spatial working memory (Oh & Kim, 2004; Woodman & Luck, 2004). However, actively remembering certain simple feature details, such as color patches, does not seem to affect search slopes (Woodman, Vogel, & Luck, 2001). There is reason to think that independently of resource sharing, memory impacts search in the form of accumulated (preliminary) evidence within a given trial. At a minimum, extracting the identity of the target must cross a threshold of recognition, and the processing prior to crossing this threshold qualifies as preliminary evidence accumulated. Rapid resumption provides a new way to study the information that accumulates about targets and distractors prior to target detection. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

The Contents of Perceptual Hypotheses: Evidence from Rapid Resumption of Interrupted Visual Search
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.