Nonattentional Effects of Nonpredictive Central Cues

By Ivanoff, Jason; Saoud, Wafa | Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, May 2009 | Go to article overview

Nonattentional Effects of Nonpredictive Central Cues


Ivanoff, Jason, Saoud, Wafa, Attention, Perception and Psychophysics


Recent evidence suggests that nonpredictive gaze, hand, arrow, and peripheral cues elicit shifts of reflexive attention. In the present article, we address whether these cues also influence the decision criterion in a go/no-go task. Nonpredictive central gaze and hand cues pointed toward or away from the location of an imminent target. Responses to the targets were faster, and false alarm errors were more frequent, when cues pointed toward the target than when they were directed away from it. Although a similar pattern was observed with nonpredictive arrow cues, it was not seen with nonpredictive peripheral cues. These results suggest that nonpredictive central cues not only affect attention, but also bias decision processes.

Since the early work of Posner (1980), it has been argued that predictive central cues evoke a shift of voluntary, endogenous attention. These central cues predict, with some degree of certainty, the location of the imminent target. The effects of predictive central cues are vulnerable to concurrent memory load (Jonides, 1981). It is thought that shifts of endogenous attention, elicited from predictive central cues, improve target processing by excluding external noise (Lu & Dosher, 2000), although others have argued that predictive central cues also enhance the perceptual representation of the target (Prinzmetal, McCool, & Park, 2005). Shifts of reflexive, exogenous attention, however, are elicited from nonpredictive peripheral cues. The effects of peripheral cues are impervious to concurrent memory load and instructions to ignore the cue (Jonides, 1981). Like endogenous attention, exogenous attention improves target processing by excluding external noise from the target (Dosher & Lu, 2000). Unlike endogenous attention, however, exogenous attention also enhances the perceptual representation of the target (Dosher & Lu, 2000). There are other differences between exogenous and endogenous forms of orienting. Endogenous attention increases the Stroop effect, whereas exogenous attention decreases it (Funes, Lupiáñez, & Milliken, 2007). Exogenous orienting effects are greater within a conjunction task than within a feature task, whereas endogenous orienting effects are similar in both tasks (Briand & Klein, 1987). Although endogenous and exogenous attention facilitate responding to impending targets, the mechanisms by which they do so are likely different (Klein, 1994; Klein & Shore, 2000).

Klein and colleagues have uncovered another important dissociation between endogenous and exogenous attention. Whereas endogenous attentional effects interact with nonspatial stimulus-response probability effects (Handy, Green, Klein, & Mangun, 2001; Kingstone, 1992; Klein & Hansen, 1990), exogenous attentional effects do not (Klein, 1994). The effects of endogenous cues on response times (RTs) are larger for high-frequency targets than they are for less frequent targets. Moreover, the difference in error rates between the infrequent and frequent targets is greater at the cued location than it is at the uncued location. In other words, when presented at the cued location, less frequent targets are more likely to be classified incorrectly than frequent targets. Handy et al. referred to this pattern of results as postspotlight masking, implying that late pigeonholing effects (e.g., Broadbent, 1971) mask the effect of endogenous orienting to low-frequency targets. Accordingly, Klein (1994) argued that predictive central cues, but not nonpredictive peripheral cues, influence the decision criterion.

Nonpredictive peripheral cues have early (attentional facilitation) and late (i.e., inhibition of return, or IOR) effects on information processing. Posner and Cohen (1984) discovered a biphasic response from nonpredictive peripheral cues: Responses to cued targets are initially facilitated by a cue; but with an extended (greater than 300 msec) cue-target onset asynchrony (CTOA), responses to cued targets become slower than those to uncued targets. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Nonattentional Effects of Nonpredictive Central Cues
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.