The Influence of Personal & Psychological Factors on Prone-Ness of Athletes in Ogun State to Abuse Drugs
Ogunyemi, A O, Musa, K T, Ife Psychologia
The study examined the influence of gender, educational level, perceived self-efficacy and achievement striving behaviour on prone-ness of athletes in Ogun State to abuse drugs. Descriptive survey design was adopted. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 304 participants. The age range of participants is between 13 and 35, with 138 male and 166 female. Three instruments were used to collect data; and t-test statistical procedure was utilized to analyze data. Results indicated that there is no significant gender, educational level and achievement striving differentials in the prone-ness of athletes to abuse drug, but there is significant difference in the prone-ness to abuse drugs between athletes with high and low self-efficacy. Consequently, it was suggested that measures should be taken to enhance the self-efficacy skills of athletes for better results in the battle against drug abuse among sports men and women.
Keywords: Gender, Educational Level, Achievement Striving Behaviour, Self-Efficacy, Drug Abuse, Athletes.
It is a truism that the discovery of certain drugs (substance) has improved the quality of lives of many people. Many drugs prevent and treat diseases that otherwise would interfere with physical, mental, social and psychological well being of people. The responsible use of drugs promotes optimum health for most people, while the misuse and abuse of drugs interfere with the achievement of optimum health for others.
Substance use generally refers to a psychoactive substance, which could be legal or illegal; and the substance could be used in any manner of different ways such as swallowing, drinking, inhaling, sniffing, smoking and injecting. Different substances produce an effect that may be short or long in duration, and harmful or helpful to the body system. Substance use can become abuse when it starts to cause the substance user medical, legal, social, economic, psychological and other problems. Drug abuse refers to the use of a given substance, which has an unwanted effect on the user. In other words, it refers to the use of substances when the said use is causing detriment to the individual's physical health or causes the user legal, social, psychological, financial or other problems including endangering their lives or the lives of others. It is the intentional use of drugs for reasons other than their intended medical purpose(s) (Adeyemo, 2007).
One of the major social problems of most nations in the world, whether developed, developing or underdeveloped is the problem of indiscriminate or illegal use of drug, especially among youths (Adeyemo,2004; Johnson,et al 2000). Apart from being a major public health problem, some consider drug abuse to be a social problem with far-reaching implications. Stress, poverty, domestic and societal violence, and various diseases (injecting drug users as a source for HIV/ AIDs) are sometimes spread by drug use. Studies (Bergob, 1994; Blackwell & Erickson, 1988; Erickson, Diane, Yuet & Patrick 1997) have also shown that individuals dependent on illicit drugs experience higher rates of Comorbid psychiatric syndromes, bronchitis, emphysema, gastro intestinal cancers, high blood pressure, visual acuity, brain damage, and poor muscle coordination, among others. The social implications of drug abuse abound in literature. For instance, Udoh (1990) opined that broken homes, family violence, loss of job, carelessness, criminal tenderness of all sorts etc are some of the social consequences of drug abuse. The adverse effect of drug abuse on people and the nation's economy has put governments of most nations on their toes, with no respite yet. Attempts by governments, sponsored drug control policies to interdict drug supply and eliminate drug abuse have been largely unsuccessful. In spite of the huge efforts by the Nigerian governments at all tiers of governance, incidence of drug abuse has reached an alarming stage, with the vast majority of resources spent on interdiction and law enforcement instead of public health. …