Aging with GRACE: Quality Integrated Care for Low-Income Elders

By Counsell, Steven | Aging Today, September/October 2009 | Go to article overview

Aging with GRACE: Quality Integrated Care for Low-Income Elders


Counsell, Steven, Aging Today


Older adults, especially those who are poor, often do not receive effective medical treatment for their conditions.

Low-income elders frequendy have socio-economic stressors, low literacy, multiple chronic illnesses and limited access to healthcare. When these adults do access care, typically it is fragmented - lacking in continuity and coordination between various healthcare professionals and settings.

These factors contribute to the disproportionately high utilization of acute care services and healthcare costs in this growing population, and prompted the design of a new integrated primary care model called Geriatric Resources for Assessment and Care of Elders (GRACE), which has been shown effective in improving the quality and costeffectiveness of care for low-income elders in Indianapolis, Ind.

HIGH QUALITY, COST-NEUTRAL CARE

My colleagues and I at the Indiana University Center for Aging Research made a study of the GRACE model, which we reported upon in the Journal of the American Medical Association (298:2623-2633, 2007). We registered improved quality of care, better healdirelated quality of life and reduced emergency department visits for patients receiving two years of care within the GRACE program, compared to a control group receiving care as usual.

For the sickest patients, or for those at high risk of hospitalization, GRACE substantially reduced hospital admission rates. A recent cost analysis of the GRACE model, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (57:1420-1426, 2009), showed that due to reductions in hospital costs offsetting increases in chronic and preventive care costs (including the costs of the GRACE intervention), the program is cost-neutral for high-risk patients in the first two years.

During the third year, me GRACE model showed cost savings in high-risk patients, which stemmed from continued lower hospital utilization rates and hospital costs.

INNER WORKINGS OF GRACE

The GRACE model builds on lessons learned from prior efforts to improve the care of older adults through multidimensional assessment and interdisciplinary team care. The program aims to improve tiie longitudinal integration of geriatric and primary care services across the care continuum - integration diat increases the likelihood of elders receiving recommended care.

The GRACE model turns on die following elements:

* a nurse-practitioner and social worker team offer in-home assessment and care management that collaborates with and supports die primary care physician;

* a geriatrics interdisciplinary team, led by a geriatrician and including a pharmacist, mental health social worker and community-based services liaison, provide patient care planning;

* specific care protocols are used extensively for evaluation and management of common geriatric conditions;

* a Web-based care management tracking tool and an integrated electronic medical record; and

integrated affiliated geriatric care, mental healtii care, pharmacy, home healdicare and community services.

America's healdicare workforce and infrastructure are inadequate to meet the needs of die aging population; die GRACE model was designed to optimize the roles of primary care and geriatrics healthcare professionals. Two full-time equivalent (FTE) nurse-practitioners, two social workers with a 0.5 FTE administrative assistant and 0.1 FTE each of a geriatrician, pharmacist, mental health social worker and community-based services liaison are needed to provide GRACE to approximately 220 high-risk patients from one or more primary care physician practices.

Initially, the GRACE nurse-practitioner and social worker meet wim the patient's primary care physician to review, modify and prioritize the care plan, men collaborate with the physician on putting it into practice. The GRACE interdisciplinary team holds weekly meetings to ensure accountability for care plan implementation and to help avoid any barriers to care. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Aging with GRACE: Quality Integrated Care for Low-Income Elders
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.