Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Perceived Parental Involvement: Implications for Parental Involvement in Middle Schools

By Cripps, Kayla; Zyromski, Brett | RMLE Online, January 1, 2009 | Go to article overview

Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Perceived Parental Involvement: Implications for Parental Involvement in Middle Schools


Cripps, Kayla, Zyromski, Brett, RMLE Online


Abstract

Adolescence is a critical period of development. Previous research suggests parent involvement in school directly impacts student success. However, different types of parental involvement and the efforts of middle school personnel to educate parents about these effective practices have received scant attention in the literature. The level and type of parental involvement, as perceived by adolescents, is correlated with adolescent psychological well-being. Perceived parental involvement positively or negatively affects adolescents' sense of psychological well-being, especially self-esteem, self-evaluation, and peer relationships. Parenting style greatly influences children's development as well. The authoritative/democratic parenting style influences middle school children, leading to positive developmental outcomes, positive adolescent self-evaluations, higher levels of adolescent self-esteem and adjustment, while also positively influencing levels of intrinsic motivation for learning. This article reviews research related to (a) adolescents' perceptions of parental involvement, (b) the parenting style related to higher levels of psychological well-being, and (c) the impact of assorted parenting styles on adolescent psychological well-being. It concludes with implications for middle school systems, middle school counselors, families, parents, and community members.

Introduction

Adolescence is a critical period of development. Adolescents are continuously changing mentally, physically, and psychologically (Santrock, 2004). They are learning more about the 'real world' and trying to strive for both independence from parents and inclusion in social groups (Santrock & Yussen, 1984). Adolescents want to be perceived as adults with capable decision-making skills, but also want to remain members of a large peer group. Additionally, these young people desire support and structure from their parents, though they project an indifferent demeanor and challenge the supportive measures of their parents. Whether parents are involved in and support their adolescents' school life can directly affect their personal and social development as well as their academic success (Gecas & Schwalbe, 1986; Harris & Goodall, 2008; Jeynes, 2007).

Previous research has shown parent involvement in school directly impacts student success (Harris & Goodall, 2008; Jeynes, 2007; Sirvani, 2007; Whitmore & Norton-Meier, 2008). However, types of involvement and efforts to educate parents about the most effective types of involvement during the middle school years have received scant attention in the literature. This article focuses on adolescents and their psychological well-being. Specifically, two research questions were used as guides for the study. First, do adolescents who have a higher level of perceived parental involvement have a higher level of psychological well-being? Second, which parenting style is related to higher levels of psychological well-being? The purpose of the article is to discuss possible applications of the answers to these questions to increase parental involvement in middle schools by developing home and school relationships. Answers to these questions are also used to frame productive middle school parent programming and education efforts.

The Adolescent-Parent Relationship and Psychological Well-Being

The relationship between perceived parental involvement and adolescent psychological well-being is based on two realities. The first reality, the home environment, is the initial social arena in which adolescents have remained more consistently under the influence and supervision of their parents. Later, these individuals begin to seek an alternate reality, separating from parents and seeking inclusion with peers during adolescence (Bossard & Boll, 1966; Santrock & Yussen, 1984). Adolescents begin building their own self-concept through observing the reactions directed toward them by vital individuals in their lives (Gibson & Jefferson, 2006). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Perceived Parental Involvement: Implications for Parental Involvement in Middle Schools
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.