Reading and Writing with Help from Story Grammar

By Hagood, Barbara F. | Teaching Exceptional Children, March 1, 1997 | Go to article overview

Reading and Writing with Help from Story Grammar


Hagood, Barbara F., Teaching Exceptional Children


Story Grammer Strategies

Story grammar strategies include selfquestioning, story maps, character and plot development, and comparison and contrast of similar stories (such as Cinderella and Three Little Pig variations). These strategies can be incorporated into the regular curriculum, using explicit instruction techniques such as teacher modeling and teacher guided instruction-two aspects of explicit instruction that influence students' achievement positively (Gambrell & Chasen, 1991). Repetition is also helpful to ensure internalization of the material by the students.

Strategy 1. Teach students to use self-questioning techniques to increase their comprehension of a narrative text.

Rationale: To increase a child's comprehension and recall of a text, alert the child to the text's organizational structure. Students may be aware that stories generally follow a pattern, but have not yet learned a strategy for using and integrating this knowledge to improve their comprehension. One way to alert a child to this organizational structure is to teach self-questioning techniques. Carnine and Kinder (1985) found that when students learn to use self-questioning strategies while reading, they gain the ability to approach new reading material with a greater understanding.

Activity: To model using self-questions, write the following, or a similar variation, on the board:

1. Who is this story about?

2. Where does this story take place?

3. What is the problem in this story?

4. What happens while the main character in this story is trying to solve the problem?

5. How is the problem solved?

6. How does the main character in this story feel about the solution?

Then read a familiar story aloud and model answering these questions while reading. The next step in this process is to guide the students while they read a story aloud and attempt to answer the questions. The students should then read silently and independently answer the story grammar questions. During this phase, be available to offer assistance when needed. Reinforce this strategy through several lessons to ensure that the students internalize the process.

Strategy 2. Teach students to use story maps to organize a story's components.

Rationale: The framework of questions offered by a story grammar activity is sometimes not concrete enough for students with special needs. A variation of this technique is to use a pictorial story map as a visual organizer for readers. When story maps are used, students can build relationships between existing schemata and reading materials by focusing directly on text structure. It gives students with poor comprehension a way to develop an organizational framework for thinking about narrative stories that relates to the basic story grammar. When students use a story map while reading, they are more capable of categorizing the strong relevant information that is derived from the textual reading (Idol & Croll, 1987).

Activity: First, show the students a copy of the story map to be used for the lesson and discuss the elements on the map (see Figure 1). Then model the strategy of using a story map as you read a story aloud. Next, guide the students through using a story map while reading a story. During this phase, stop the students at specific points while reading and ask them to identify the story grammar element that has just been read. At this point, correct any incorrect response to avoid confusion. The next step in this strategy is to have students complete the story maps independently while reading silently. Eventually, work to phase the story maps out while still retaining the same level of comprehension from the students.

Strategy 3. Teach students to use story grammar to increase their writing skills.

Rationale: When students write narrative stories, they must formulate ideas, create plots, develop characters, and solve problems encountered in the story (Graves & Hauge, 1993). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Reading and Writing with Help from Story Grammar
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.