Recurrent Selection on the Winters Sex-Ratio Genes in Drosophila Simulans

By Kingan, Sarah B.; Garrigan, Daniel et al. | Genetics, January 2010 | Go to article overview

Recurrent Selection on the Winters Sex-Ratio Genes in Drosophila Simulans


Kingan, Sarah B., Garrigan, Daniel, Hartl, Daniel L., Genetics


ABSTRACT

Selfish genes, such as meiotic drive elements, propagate themselves through a population without increasing the fitness of host organisms. X-linked (or Y-linked) meiotic drive elements reduce the transmission of the Y (X) chromosome and skew progeny and population sex ratios, leading to intense conflict among genomic compartments. Drosophila simulans is unusual in having a least three distinct systems of X chromosome meiotic drive. Here, we characterize naturally occurring genetic variation at the Winters sex-ratio driver (Distorter on the X or Dox), its progenitor gene (Mother of Dox or MDox), and its suppressor gene (Not Much Yang or Nmy), which have been previously mapped and characterized. We survey three North American populations as well as 13 globally distributed strains and present molecular polymorphism data at the three loci. We find that all three genes show signatures of selection in North America, judging from levels of polymorphism and skews in the site-frequency spectrum. These signatures likely result from the biased transmission of the driver and selection on the suppressor for the maintenance of equal sex ratios. Coalescent modeling indicates that the timing of selection is more recent than the age of the alleles, suggesting that the driver and suppressor are coevolving under an evolutionary "arms race." None of the Winters sex-ratio genes are fixed in D. simulans, and at all loci we find ancestral alleles, which lack the gene insertions and exhibit high levels of nucleotide polymorphism compared to the derived alleles. In addition, we find several "null" alleles that have mutations on the derived Dox background, which result in loss of drive function. We discuss the possible causes of the maintenance of presence-absence polymorphism in the Winters sex-ratio genes.

(ProQuest: ... denotes formula omitted.)

MEIOTIC drive can leave signatures in the genome similar to positive natural selection without increasing the fitness of an organism (Lyttle 1993). Drive elements are preferentially transmitted duringmeiosis by disrupting the development or function of sperm carrying the homologous chromosome (Zimmering et al. 1970, meiotic drive sensu lato), or by true chromosome segregation defects during meiosis (Sandler and Novitski 1957, meiotic drive sensu stricto; Tao et al. 2007a). While drive elements may arise on any chromosome, sex-linked drivers have higher population invasion probabilities than autosomal drivers and are more easily detected due to their impact on progeny sex ratios (Hurst and Pomiankowski 1991). To survive, a driver must maintain tight linkage with an insensitive target locus lest it drive against itself, a condition ensured by the lack of recombination between sex chromosomes (Charlesworth and Hartl 1978). Because of the impact drive elements have on sex ratios, sexlinked drivers are often referred to as "sex-ratio distorters" and the phenotype of skewed progeny sex ratios is termed "sex-ratio." The mere transmission advantage of a driver, unless balanced by some detrimental fitness effect or masked by a suppressor, can cause it to sweep through a population in a manner similar to a positively selected mutation (Edwards 1961; Vaz and Carvalho 2004).

Obviously, a complete sweep of a sex-linked driver dooms a male-less (or female-less) population to extinction (Hamilton 1967), and natural selection strongly favors genetic factors that suppress drive and restore Mendelian segregation. Fisher (1930) presented a qualitative argument for the maintenance of an equal sex ratio, which predicts selection on any heritable variant that increases the production of the rarer sex. Fisher's principle has been formalized mathematically and demonstrated empirically (e.g., Bodmer and Edwards 1960; Carvalho et al. 1998). Suppressors have been identified in a wide variety of meiotic drive systems and are predicted to be strongly favored by natural selection for the maintenance of equal sex ratios (reviewed by Jaenike 2001). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Recurrent Selection on the Winters Sex-Ratio Genes in Drosophila Simulans
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.