An Analysis of Studies Conducted Video Modeling in Teaching Social Skills
Gül, Seray Olcay, Vuran, Sezgin, Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri
The video model method is an application with evidence basis, defined as watching and taking as a model the target behavior exhibited by the person on the videotape. The video model method is a teaching method that can be used in teaching many different skills to children displaying normal development and to children with developmental disabilities. This study aimed to examine and analyze studies in which the video modeling was used in teaching social skills to individuals with developmental disabilities. The present study is a qualitative document analysis. Documents (research) which were gathered according to certain criteria were analyzed by the authors. A total of 21 studies, 2 of which were conducted in Turkey, that met the criteria offset by the present study were analyzed according to the certain criteria. The reason why subjects in 3-15 years of age diagnosed with autism and Asberger's syndrome were selected in 97% of the studies and why social skills were analyzed in 81% of the studies was not explained. In addition, social validity data were collected only in 33% of all studies. This is a quite low rate for the studies focused on teaching of social skills.
Video Modeling, Social Skills, Autism, Social Validity.
Social skills which are defined as observable, definable, and learned behaviors that help the individual achieve positive results in a certain situation and be accepted by society are taught in a systematic manner using specific teaching methods (Begun, 1996). Among these methods are direct teaching, social reinforcement, feedback, cooperative learning, providing cues, opportunity teaching, shaping, modeling, behavioral rehearsal, peer tutoring, social stories, and video modeling (Baker, 2004; Çolak, 2007). Video modeling is one of the effective methods in teaching social skills. At the heart of this method lies the theory of learning through observation. This theory is based on the suggestion that individuals gain knowledge and learn skills by just observing the behaviors displayed by other individuals without any need for a behavior training or learning-by-doing (Akmanoglu, 2008; Nikopoulos, & Keenan, 2006). Gabriel Tarde was the first researcher to establish the importance of learning through observation and learning from models for the development of human behaviors (Bandura, & Walters, 1963). The pioneers of this theory were N. E. Miller, J. Dollard and A. Bandura (Bandura, & Walters, 1963; Nikopoulos, & Keenan, 2006).
In the learning through observation theory, two fundamental processes are discussed: modeling and imitating (Charlop-Christy, Le, & Freeman, 2000). These two processes also form the basis of teaching with the video model which is an evidence-based practice, defined as watching and taking as model the target behavior exhibited by the person on the videotape (Akmanoglu, 2008; Bellini, Akullian, & Hopf, 2007; Charlop-Christy et al., 2000; Nikopoulos, & Keenan, 2006; Sansosti, & Powell-Smith, 2008). Teaching with video modeling is effective in the teaching of many different skills and can be used for both children showing normal development and children with developmental disabilities. In recent years, the literature has indicated that the video model has been successfully used in teaching various social, academic, and functional skills to individuals with developmental disabilities.
Teaching with the video model may be performed in four ways: (i) modeling with video, (ii) feedback with video, (iii) cue with video, and (iv) computer-aided video teaching (Mechling, 2004). Modeling with video is the process where the individual watches the video recordings in which all sub-steps of a skill is displayed by a peer, adult, or herself/ himself/ and then repeats these behaviors (Banda, Matuszny, & Turkan, 2007; Charlop-Christy et al., 2000). In feedback with video, the individual watches her/his own performance in a non-edited videotape; may notice her/his appropriate and inappropriate behaviors; may discuss these behaviors with the practitioner; and make adjustments in future performance (Maione, & Mirenda, 2006; Mechling, 2004). …