An Analysis of the Need for a Legislative Initiative for Long-Term Care in China/UNE ANALYSE SUR LA NÉCESSITÉ D'UNE INITIATIVE LÉGISLATIVE POUR LES SOINS DE LONGUE DURÉE EN CHINE
Zhuang, Han, Canadian Social Science
Presently, in China, the population is aging at an accelerating rate and the number of disabled people is increasing. In order to ensure that the disabled, old people and others live in dignity, a legislative initiative for long-term care is badly needed to regulate money-raising, long-term care institutions and nursing staff. The costs of long-term care should be included within the scope of social insurance in order to maintain social safety and share risk. As for care institutions and nursing staff, because they involve management functions such as construction, health, labor and human resources, education and etc. and most of them are technical, related competent authorities should be authorized to set administrative regulations to form the standards for institution-founding and personnel training and evaluation.
Key words: long-term care; the elderly; legislative need
Résumé: Actuellement en Chine, la population vieillit à un rythme accéléré et le nombre de personnes handicapées est en augmentation. Afin d'assurer que les handicapés, les personnes âgées et les autres peuvent vivre dans la dignité, une initiative législative pour les soins de longue durée est absolument nécessaire pour réglementer la collecte de fonds, les institutions de soins de longue durée et le personnel d'aide ménagère. Les coûts des soins de longue durée devraient être inclus dans l'assurance sociale, afin de maintenir la sécurité sociale et de partager le risque. Quant aux institutions de soins et le personnel d'aide ménagère, comme ils impliquent des fonctions de gestion tels que la construction, la santé, le travail et les ressources humaines, l'éducation etc et la plupart d'entre eux sont techniques, des autorités compétentes appropriées devraient être autorisées à établir des règlements administratifs pour former les normes sur l'établissement des institutions, la formation du personnel et l'évaluation.
Mots-Clés: soins de longue durée; personnes âgées; nécessité législative
The expression "long-term care" is originally from the English language. It is an unavoidable social problem for those countries in which the society is aging. The subjects of long-term care include not only the old, but also those people who need long-term care and professional nursing because of physical, psychiatric or psychological diseases or disabilities. According to the statistics of the Bureau of Chinese Civil Affairs there are presently 9.4 million disabled and elderly people within the whole nation, 1.94 million of which live in the city and 7.46 million of which live in the country-side. Besides, there are 18.94 million partially disabled and elderly people. Because of a lack of social care, the old and disabled affect negatively both sides of their families; therefore, there are dozens of millions of families troubled by the problem of caring for the old and disabled.2 Traditionally, we are inclined to accept that our own family should take on these responsibilities. However, in recent years, because the population is aging at an accelerating rate, more families have only one child and family structures are changing, so problems of family financial pressure, care institutions and staff expert in long-term care gradually appear. Present laws and regulations are not enough to deal with those problems. Thus, in order to ensure the old and disabled and others live in dignity, we should enact a law to regulate long-term care as soon as possible, by using the power of government, to integrate different kinds of care resources, to protect the rights and benefits of the disabled, and to increase the health of our citizens.
1. THE PROBLEMS ARISING
The Bureau of Chinese Civil Affairs published a "Statistic Report of the Development of Civil Affairs in 2008" in May, 2009, which showed that by the end of 2008, in China, there were 109.56 million people over 65 years old, taking 8.3% of the whole population, a rise of 0. …